Fishermen Community Economic Empowerment through Joint Development Business Group in Cirebon City  

Liliek Soeprijadi Soeprijadi1 , Endang Yuli2 , Edi Susilo2 , Rudianto Rudianto2
1. Doctoral Degree, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
2. Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Marine Science, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 35   doi: 10.5376/ijms.2013.03.0035
Received: 26 May, 2013    Accepted: 23 Jun., 2013    Published: 02 Jul., 2013
© 2013 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Soeprijadi et al, 2013, Fishermen Community Economic Empowerment through Joint Development Business Group in Cirebon City, International Journal of Marine Science, Vol.3, No.35 278-284 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2013.03.0035)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyze the income of coastal communities that the average low-income to a variety of items of daily necessities at affordable prices; analyzing the welfare of fishermen livelihood as fishermen go out to sea to provide for a relatively cheap price; analyze potential opportunities employment and improve the productive economic activities of coastal communities in general; analyzing the potential of trained professionals as managers of micro-enterprises such as business skills bike shop, tavern coast, solar packed dealer fishermen and marine tourism services business; analyze institutional joint venture group of fishermen (KUB) to productive economic activities are legal entities. The method used was the identification stage approach, approach and strategy construction activities, mentoring and recruitment stage approach HR, training stage approach and the approach stage fund direct delivery. The results showed that the activities of the joint venture fishing (KUB) was the effort Cirebon City bike shop, tavern coast, solar dealers packed fishing marine tourism and business services to help increase the economic income of coastal communities in the city of Cirebon Keywords: business group with fishermen, shop coastal fishermen and dealers packed diesel service business of marine tourism.

Keywords
Business group with fishermen; Shop coastal fishermen and dealers; Packed diesel service business; Marine tourism

Government policies to raise fuel prices in July 2008 triggered rising prices of goods and push the rate of inflation so that the purchasing power of coastal communities, especially fishermen, the less, despite rising real income levels. Traditional fishermen who were poor also competing with the fishermen who categorized semi-modern, modern and heavy weather and erratic season which disturb their activity. For that we need a coastal community economic empowerment through the development of joint business group of fishermen. According Kusnadi (2009) definedas fishing community empowerment efforts that were consciously planned, systematic, and continuous to develop the independence of social, economic, political and fishing communities to manage their resources potential to achieve sustainable social welfare.

It requires a systemic requirement and processes in the economic empowerment of the people especially those belonging to the poor, such as traditional fishing communities in the countryside. The requirements were intended to: (1) the conditions for empowerment (2) provide an opportunity for the public increasingly powerless, (3) protection order can develop empowerment, (4) improve the ability to be more empowered, and (5) governmental function. While the process of empowerment of the poor can be done gradually through three phases: (1) the initial phase, in which the government of the most dominant and passive people, (2) participatory phase, wherein the process of empowerment comes from the government and society, and (3) phase emancipator, people are able to find the strength that he can do reforms to actualize themselves (Pranaka and Prijono, 1996), with the lead to three principal objectives, namely: (1) rising incomes at the lower level and a decrease in the number of people who were under poverty line, (2) developing the capacity of communities to improve the socio-economic productive activities in rural communities, and (3) development of community capacity and increasing the capacity of community institutions, both officers and citizens (Sumodiningrat, 2000), and carried out through three directions, namely: (1) the creation of atmosphere and climate which allows the potential for developing communities (enabling), (2) strengthening the potential or power held by the public (empowering), and (3) protection (protecting) the weaker party in order not to grow weak and prevent rivalry unequal and exploitation of the strong over the weak (Kartasasmita, 1996), and using the three approaches, namely: first, the targeted approach, empowerment means that people should be targeted pro-poor, secondly, a team approach, meaning together to facilitate solving those problems, and third, mentoring approach, meaning that during the formation and organization of the poor must be accompanied by a companion professionals as facilitators, communicators, and dynamic to the group to accelerate the achievement of independence (Kartasasmita, 1996).
It requires a systemic requirement and processes in the economic empowerment of the people especially those belonging to the poor, such as traditional fishing communities in the countryside. The requirements were intended to: (1) the conditions for empowerment (2) provide an opportunity for the public increasingly powerless, (3) protection order can develop empowerment, (4) improve the ability to be more empowered, and (5) governmental function. While the process of empowerment of the poor can be done gradually through three phases: (1) the initial phase, in which the government of the most dominant and passive people, (2) participatory phase, wherein the process of empowerment comes from the government and society, and (3) phase emancipator, people are able to find the strength that he can do reforms to actualize themselves (Pranaka and Prijono, 1996), with the lead to three principal objectives, namely: (1) rising incomes at the lower level and a decrease in the number of people who were under poverty line, (2) developing the capacity of communities to improve the socio-economic productive activities in rural communities, and (3) development of community capacity and increasing the capacity of community institutions, both officers and citizens (Sumodiningrat, 2000), and carried out through three directions, namely: (1) the creation of atmosphere and climate which allows the potential for developing communities (enabling), (2) strengthening the potential or power held by the public (empowering), and (3) protection (protecting) the weaker party in order not to grow weak and prevent rivalry unequal and exploitation of the strong over the weak (Kartasasmita, 1996), and using the three approaches, namely: first, the targeted approach, empowerment means that people should be targeted pro-poor, secondly, a team approach, meaning together to facilitate solving those problems, and third, mentoring approach, meaning that during the formation and organization of the poor must be accompanied by a companion professionals as facilitators, communicators, and dynamic to the group to accelerate the achievement of independence (Kartasasmita, 1996).
Nuryono (2006) states that most of the fishermen had been feeling a drastic decline in catches. This was due to the late decision of the poor fishermen by large investors and illegal fishing by other countries that use the fishing boats and more modern equipment that crisscross the coastal region. While the poor fishermen often do not have the understanding and skills in fishing, which tends to destroy habitat, consequently reducing fish populations. Fishermen were also limited in terms of poor infrastructure, lack of technological support to obtain sufficient results. Government's efforts in expanding the opportunities of the poor in coastal areas, in the fulfillment of their basic needs was a program to improve the welfare of coastal communities, especially fishermen and small fish, to the strengthening of institutions and organization of fishing communities. The increase in the maintenance of the carrying capacity of coastal and marine environmental quality. Increased marine resource security from theft and vandalism.
Policy in an effort to increase productivity, production, competitiveness and value-added fishery products should be directed to increasing the utilization of fisheries resources in supporting the economy and keep the continuity. Besides, construction of marine and fisheries were expected to increase the contribution of national economic development between the formation of investment, increase foreign exchange, increased employment and new employment opportunities and strengthen national food security. So the general development of marine fisheries was the utilization of marine resources and fisheries should be oriented to the national interest, such as improving public welfare, foreign exchange, to meet the needs of the community; every coastal community development activities and sea must meet the criteria of sustainable development (sustainable development) that was economically efficient and optimal (economically sound), socially equitable and culturally acceptable (social-Culturally accepted and just), didn’t exceed the ecological carrying capacity of the environment (environmental friendly), strengthening political unity of the nation; implementation of development based integrated regional approach (integrated regional approach), oriented to empowering community institutions, so as to minimize the burden of the state budget (Nikijuluw, 2001).
1 Research Methodology
1.1 Identification stage approach
The initial step in this activity was the identification or mapping problem. This is done with the aim, among others, so that implementers really know the condition of the people, so as to estimate the right strategy and making adjustments in the implementation. In the community, problem identification was intended to prevent the gap between the objectives of the activity with the aim of society, so that people gain the maximum benefits of this project. To formulate the needs of the fishing community needs effective methods and participatory manner, in which methods of participatory action research (PAR), focus group discussion (FGD) or brainstorming with local communities so that they can be dug important information that can give a complete picture of the conditions and wishes of the people.
1.2 Approach and strategy of the construction phase activities
Approach and strategy development activities (construction phase) with business groups (KUB) fishermen, was done by utilizing the principle resources of the coastal city of Cirebon, both natural resources and human resource capability or the coastal city of Cirebon as a determinant of the direction of ongoing activities.
1.3 Approach to mentoring and recruitment phase of HR
At the time of program execution with business groups (KUB) worked fishermen, while awaiting the completion of the construction of buildings and apparatus, performed the preparation activities and prospective managers who will handle the activities and utilize a variety of micro-enterprises in the coastal city of Cirebon. This activity was more known as public assistance.
The purpose of this public assistance in general is the process of transformation of the society, from the previous regular basic needs and production needs in the city of Cirebon. These assistance activities will be expected to meet the needs of families of fishermen, from the results of operations that have been made that are in the coastal of Cirebon city. Assistance activities are designed to create integrated coastal communitiesinterests, so that will be owned by the community, managed by the community and the benefits intended for the welfare of the community.
1.4 Stage approach to training
Training conducted for two kinds of target groups, example training and community training for prospective managers with business groups of fishermen. The training is aimed at people such as entrepreneurship training, motivation and institutional development. The purpose of the training was to enable the transformation of knowledge concerning the management of a joint venture to how to set up institutions and how the creation of productive behavior for post-operation activities with business groups, with the training of the community is prepared to accept the presence and manage all the programs with business groups. While the training was aimed can be prospective managers with business groups (KUB) fishermen, can be business management training, procurement, reporting and so on. The purpose of this training was the availability of human resources capable of managing business groups (KUB) fishing, so businesses can thrive and benefit for the people who are involved directly or indirectly and to maintain sustainability.
1.5 Stage approach to fund direct delivery
Approach and strategy development activities with business groups fishermen stage delivery direct this fund, to get closer to the real interest of the funding needs of each phase of development activities with business groups of fishermen. Availability of funds, the disbursement of funds to use for the benefit of the activities carried out simultaneously by holding on to guide fund management activities.
1.6 Stage approach to supervision, monitoring, evaluation and reporting
Concept and approach to supervision activities, monitoring and evaluation was more focused on the accuracy of the data, standardization of process monitoring and supervision, reporting mechanisms that have been defined previously.
2 Results and Discussion
2.1 Bike shop fishing effort
After the implementation of the program with business groups in the city of Cirebon fishermen, can be reported that the fishermen who focus on fisheries, the fishing effort by 67%, while 33% of fishermen fishing activities outside the business, one of which productive economic activity was business bike shop fisherman (Department of Marine and Fisheries, 2011). Under these conditions, long-term community development programs were focused on the empowerment of fishermen to increase the independence of fishing communities through the development of alternative economic activities, improving the quality of human resources (HR), community participation, strengthening capital, and institutional strengthening of the economy of fishing communities (Department of Marine and Fisheries, 2007). Some form of activity that can increase the income of fishermen by fishermen empowerment programs beyond fisheries, among other business unit’s fisher bike shop, packed solar dealer fishermen, coastal tavern, and marine tourism (Dahuri, 2001).
Bengen (2001) states there were five approaches empower fishermen to do in order to improve the welfare of fishermen through business groups, namely: (1) creation of alternative employment as a source of income for the family, (2) the public closer to the source of capital with emphasis on the creation of mechanisms to fund themselves (self-financing mechanism), (3) the public closer to the source of new technologies that were more successful and efficient, (4) the public closer to the market, and (5) build solidarity and collective action in the community. Mastery of skills related to the alternative, example the motor fishing business skills workshops, Sudarso (2008) states that the result did not have the necessary skills, but also because he did not have enough production assets, then attempt to find a new job for the poor fisher folk clear not the easy thing to do.
2.2 Coffee shop business or coastal
Development of coastal tavern in Cirebon was able to increase the economic income alternatives, beyond to fishing. The economic burden of coastal communities can be helped, because the income was increasing, and the option to increase the business was also growing. There were 9 business groups contained in Cirebon City, where it will also include coastal tavern business. 9 Group joint venture (KUB), among others: 1) KUB Bahari Sejahtera; 2) KUB Muara laut; 3) KUB Sejati; 4) KUB Jenaha; 5) KUB Kakap Merah; 6) KUB Citra Nelayan; 7) KUB Mitra Jaya; 8) KUB Samudera Lestari, and 9) KUB Sinar laut. Institutionally coastal tavern was professionally managed with the franchise and prepared approach incorporated cooperative, so the results of operations of the acquired profit shop this coast will be enjoyed again by coastal communities (Nuryono, 2006).
Its stated goal in the coastal community economic empowerment program (PEMP) through the development of coastal tavern were as follows: (1) assist coastal communities the average low income to obtain various types of goods of daily needs, at affordable prices (affordable price), (2) help the fishing community livelihood as fishermen go to sea with the need to provide a relatively cheap price, (3) employment opportunities and improve the productive economic activities of coastal communities in general, (4) prepare professional personnel as shop manager coast, (5) develop a coastal tavern institutional productive economic activities are legal entities (Nuryono, 2006).
Tavern coastal development activities have focused on the principle that the interests of fishing communities primarily economic improvement of living standards. Principles tavern coastal development activities were: (1) participation, this means that the development of this coastal shop should be able to involve many parties or among both individuals and groups, and institutions primarily stakeholder parties (stakeholders) that will contribute to the success of This, (2) alignment, this means that the development coastal tavern was one of the government's commitment to improve the economic life of coastal communities, both livelihood as fishermen, fisheries livelihood as farmers, whose livelihood or outside as fishermen and fisheries and did not have access to a powerful economic resources which were mostly low-income communities, (3) integration, meaning tavern coastal development activities were carried out in synergy or thorough in every aspect of business continuity both coastal capital tavern, store operations, marketing, human resources, and management overall business management, (4) sustainability, this means that the development coastal tavern was a continuous effort and attention to the survival and sustainability of the program in the future (Sumodiningrat, 2004).
Hartono et al (2010) stated that the research findings fried coffee shop business in coastal South Bengkulu activities include operational targets for the purchase of necessary materials, namely as the cost of purchasing raw materials, cost of equipment, beverage bottles, beverage cans, beverages, cost of food or drinks light, and for the cost of purchasing cigarettes. Stall fried the same shape as the stalls there were generally fried, with roof sheeting and some tables and chairs. This stallwas made by non-target groups using existing personnel. Building made simple yet attractive stall giving rise to the added value of products sold. Costs for making fried stalls and other equipment were allocated effectively and efficiently in accordance with the desired range so that development can be realized with a good stall. To increase sales, the target group also conducts promotional activities by using banners that are placed in their stalls. In addition the group also established a policy target placement (placement), which was located and easily accessible by the general public and was expected to be seen by all subjects so that consumers can be attracted and buy the products. Fried food stall business was done in the vicinity of the coastal attractions below market, it was based on consideration of this location is quite a tourist attraction visited by people of South Bengkulu.
2.3 Solar dealers packed fishing effort (SPDN)
Availability of fuel oil (BBM) to be important, because the fuel was a factor input in the production of vital fisheries, in addition to the availability of fishing gear and technology, where the fishermen would not be able to go to sea without fuel. Fuel as a factor input this fishery fishermen sometimes have to be obtained from a wholesaler because of a limited supply in the market, which led to the high cost of production of fishery activity itself. This condition was exacerbated when fuel was purchased by fishermen have mixed or diluted, causing the machine to be easily damaged fishing vessels, the higher production costs to be borne by the fishermen (Hermawan, 2006).
Hermawan (2006) describes the results of research that the average impact factor of the cost of fuel to operate four production gear, namely bugis payang, nets rampus, payang gemplo, and bundes in Tegal regency of 47.40%. Since there was an increase in fuel prices (diesel) from the average price of Rp 2,300 every liter in the level of fishing to Rp 4,300 every liter, the cost of fuel for fishing effort increased to 59.11%. This suggests that the use of fuel greatly affect fishing effort, so that fisheriessubsidies on fuel were the biggest factor of the cost of production.
The fish auction (TPI) coastal city of Cirebon was one fish landing sites, which had SPDN (solar packed fishing dealer) as a form of diesel subsidy for fishermen. SPDN was built around the site TPI easier to obtain solar fishermen as input in fisheries and hopes to help the fishermen to increase revenue in the long term (Pohan, 2010). Salmah (2010) states that the existence of SPDN (dummy) was affecting the income of fishermen. So SPDN development policy had a positive effect on increasing the income of fishermen. The greater the benefit from the existence of fishermen SPDN would lead to increased incomes of fishermen.
Provision of subsidized diesel was specifically channeled through the solar fishermen packed fishing dealer (SPDN) was generally represented by the cooperative unit of coastal areas, and distributed to the unit groups of fishermen, to avoid misuse. Permit the operation of fishing cooperatives SPDN obtained from PT. Pertamina, with a few conditions to be met, among others: (1) a letter of application management and use SPDN, (2) certificate of incorporation of cooperatives as well as endorsement of the Department of Marine and Fisheries District or town, (3) a decision or recommendation of the Directorate General of Cooperatives Directorate General of Urban and Rural Cooperatives; (4) letters piled license, permit interference, the letter places of business license and permit trading business (original) from the competent authority; (5) bio chairman of the cooperative, (6) a copy of ID chairman of the cooperative, (7) a copy of TIN's cooperatives; (8) copies of land titles; (9) letter of good conduct cooperative chairman; (10) references an cooperative banks; (11) photographs chairman of the cooperative; (12) stamp duty waiver which states:
1) Land and buildings SPDN facilities were located in the area SPDN destined to fuel the business of PT. Pertamina (Persero) for a period of 10 years
2) Willing to comply with the provisions of PT. Pertamina (Persero)
Fishing cooperatives in charge of the operation SPDN was also responsible for providing monthly sales reports to the Department of Fisheries Pekalongan. In a sales report included the buyer's name, the amount of diesel fuel purchased, and the tonnage of the ship (Wikaniati, 2011).
2.4 Marine tourism services business
Coastal communities particularly in the city of Cirebon fishermen rely heavily on the use of coastal and marine. One effort for utilization of coastal and marine resources was for marine tourism services. There were three main reasons that support the coastal areas into tourist sites. First, there were a variety of inter-related ecosystems in coastal areas, such as mangrove forests, sandy beaches, sea grass beds, and coral reefs. Second, demand for coastal tourism has increased from year to year. Third, in countries such as the Indonesian archipelago, coastal tourism was a mainstay (Aminah and Utami, 2006).
Conditions of the coastal environment was still beautiful, serene, and beautiful, and the availability of facilities and infrastructure were complete include lodging, hospitals, post offices, shops telecommunications, and internet cafes, making coastal Cirebon interested domestic and foreign tourists. Some coastal beach tourism services in Cirebon were the beauty of coastal tourist, fishing, boat rental and tour mangrove forest was very cool. Fishermen can take part in marine tourism particularly open boat rentals and lodging and food stalls with typical coastal. While the role of fishermen's wives usually do trade activities pending the arrival of sea fishing to catch fish or guide tourists. Fisherman's life merchandise such as fresh fish, souvenirs, food and soft drinks (Aminah and Utami, 2006).
The main focus of nautical tourism development policy as mentioned by Kusumastanto (2002) was (1) increasing the availability of public infrastructure and facilities, (2) improve the quality and human resource capacity to manage marine tourism, (3) develop a data collection system and complete information, so that it easier for tourists to get information and access to quick, easy and inexpensive, (4) develop a non-economic activities such as tourism industrial crafts, fishing, restaurants, and ocean freight services, (5) improve system security and security for tourists, (6) create a climate conducive investment to investors, (7) develop a marine tourism management model that was able to preserve the marine ecosystem and local culture.
Aminah and Utama (2006) expressed in research on the behavior of fishers in the management of marine tourism in Bali Buleleng Lovina beach areas: (1) fishing subsistence manage marine tourism, and had not been oriented to customer satisfaction. The professionalism of the management of marine tourism services was still low, (2) all indicators of internal and external variables fishermen have a real relationship with the behavior of fishermen manage marine tourism services. Internal factors, external, and professional behavior of fishermen who contribute positively to tourist satisfaction, (3) management of marine tourism was determined by three elements: people, the condition of coastal and marine tourism management. The synergy of these three elements was balanced to ensure the sustainability of natural resources and the welfare of fishermen.
3 Conclusions
1) The joint venture group of fishermen (KUB) was the effort Cirebon City bike shop, shop the coast, solar dealers packed fishing and marine tourism services business can help increase the economic income of coastal communities in the city of Cirebon. Needs of daily living and equipment for fishing can be available at an affordable price.
2) The joint venture group of fishermen (KUB) was the effort Cirebon City bike shop, shop the coast, solar dealers packed fishing and marine tourism service enterprises can provide the needs of the fishermen go out to sea with a relatively cheap price.
3) The joint venture group of fishermen (KUB) was the effort Cirebon City bike shop, shop the coast, solar dealers packed fishing and marine tourism services business to provide employment opportunities and improve the productive economic activities of coastal communities in the city of Cirebon.
4) The joint venture group of fishermen (KUB) was the effort Cirebon City bike shop, shop the coast, solar dealers packed fishing and marine tourism service businesses can prepare and produce professional staff as a manager with business groups such as fishermen venture bike shop, tavern coastal , solar dealers packed fishing and marine tourism services business.
5) Establishment of institutional joint venture group of fishermen (KUB) Cirebon, a bike shop for business activities, coastal stalls, packed solar dealer business fisherman and marine tourism services were a productive business strategy are incorporated in the coastal city of Cirebon.
4 Recommendation
1) It was expected that business groups of fishermen (KUB) can be applied in a bike shop business, coffee coastal, solar fishing dealers packed marine tourism and business services for the improvement of the welfare of fishing communities;
2) The government should be more focused to provide guidance to the joint venture group of fishermen (KUB) as an organization that bases its development to science. Therefore, the government needs to prepare some software or hardware to perform strengthening institutional (institutional strengthening);
3) Management of business groups of fishermen (KUB) need to learn continuously to improve their performance, including the deepening of knowledge about coaching and supervision to preserve fish resources;
4) Group joint venture fishing (KUB) should be able to make independent and community members. In a sense people were able to plan, execute and evaluate business activities bike shop, tavern coast, fishermen and dealers packed solar business nautical tourism services;
5) The worldview of society must also change, which include: leadership and management of business groups of fishermen (KUB) should always be able to maintain the stability of the organization. Chairman of the joint venture group of fishermen (KUB) as the prime mover should be able to create a climate conducive to the creation of a good working environment. Joint venture group of fishermen (KUB) should be transformed into an institution that was more flexible in the procedure, more focused on the essential, and more concerned with the achievement of its members hope the management of fish resources, and also reach prosperity through value TNT. Joint venture group of fishermen (KUB) should be able to control the various rules that have been given by the government to control and achievement of the vision and values. Joint venture group of fishermen (KUB) should open in conveying information to its members and the surrounding community.
References
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