Reviews and Progresses

A Review of Some Developmental Anomalies in Domestic Species in North Central Region of Nigeria-Contributions of Normadism and Climate Changes in Embryo-toxicicitity  

Michael Samuel1 , Wanmi N.1 , Usende L.2 , Ozegbe P.C.2
1 Departments of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria
2 Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
Animal Molecular Breeding, 2016, Vol. 6, No. 1   doi: 10.5376/amb.2016.06.0001
Received: 12 Oct., 2015    Accepted: 27 Nov., 2015    Published: 01 Jan., 2016
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Samuel O.M., Wanmi N., Usende L., and Ozegbe P.C., 2016, A Review of Some Developmental Anomalies in Domestic Species in North Central Region of Nigeria-Contributions of Normadism and Climate Changes in Embryo-toxicicitity, Animal Molecular Breeding, 6(01): 1-7 (doi: 10.5376/mpb.2016.06.0001)

Abstract
This review of literatures on some developmental anomalies in domestic animals reported in the middle belt region of Nigeria seeks to evaluate the contributions of embryo-toxic contributions of environmental factors in syndromic monsters among domestic species. Three cases were considered including a rare case of Amelia brachiomelia monobrachium in a doe-goat, congenital bovine fetal Anasarca (calf) and Dicephalic, Dithoracic, Abdominopagus, Ischio-omphalopagus Tetrabrachius Tetrascelus (lamb) in Benue state. This survey evaluated each dysmorphologies in an embryologic perspective in an effort to reveal unexplored areas which may illuminate on possible pathogenetic pathways and may substrate in ameliorating the frequency of occurrence of developmental errors. The investigation concludes an enhanced possibility of genetic disposition to mutative threshold by selection through methylation repression of gene transcription in early embryo stage of affected species to result in DNA character damage and that more investigation in this regards is necessary. By season of occurrence, unpredictable climate situations, sustained high temperature deviations and phytoteratogens in alternative diets during extended dry periods may aggravate the pathogenesis of hereditary dysgenesis.                                                  
Keywords
Goats; Congenital abnormalities; Amelia; Brachiomelia monobrachium; Congenital bovine fetal Anasarca; Conjoined twins; Ecotoxicology; Climate phenomenon
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