Research Report

Management of Seed Health of Pulses Using Plant Extracts  

Ashok Kandhare
K.M.C. College, Khopoli, India
Author    Correspondence author
Bioscience Methods, 2016, Vol. 7, No. 1   doi: 10.5376/bm.2016.07.0001
Received: 26 Jan., 2016    Accepted: 08 Apr., 2016    Published: 14 Apr., 2016
© 2016 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Kandhare A.S., 2016, Management of seed health of pulses using plant extracts, Bioscience Methods, 7(1): 1-4

Abstract

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is affected by seventeen seed-borne fungi. These fungi caused adverse effects on seed health and yield. Application of synthetic fungicides causes damage to consumers and environment. Therefore, petroleum ether plant part extracts of locally available plants are tried to control seed mycoflora and to boost overall seed health of the pulse. Almost all plant extracts showed restrictive effect on seed mycoflora of the test pulse. Significant plants that controlled seed mycoflora in higher percents are Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Cyperus rotundus L., Ocimum basilicum L., O. americanum L., O. sanctum L. etc.

Keywords
Seed mycoflora; Pulses; Plant extracts

1 Introduction

Chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop in Maharashtra, it is affected by different fungal pathogens as seed mycoflora which is harmful to seed health, seed content and ultimately to yield. Association of the fungi with the seed has found to be harmful to the seed health and seed content. Total seventeen seed-borne fungi (Alternaria tenuis, A. alternate, Aspergillus carbonarius, A. flavus, A. niger, A. nidulans, A. fumigatus, Cladosporium spp., Colletotrichum truncatum, Chaetomium globosum, Curvularia lunata, Drechslera tetramera, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Macrophomina phaseolina) were isolated from the test pulse, on Agar plates and Moist blotters. Agar plates showed more fungal incidence compared to Moist blotters. Among seventeen fungi isolated and identified, six dominant fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Drechslera tetramera, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizopus stolonifer taken for the study. These six dominant seed-borne fungi of Green gram were tested against plant extracts of eighteen commonly and locally available plants.

 

2 Materials and Methods

2.1 Preparation of petroleum ether plant extracts

Five g powder of each of the plant parts was dissolved separately in mixture of 50 ml petroleum ether and 50 ml distilled water; in 250 ml borosil glass conical flasks. The flasks were kept in oven (Metlab) for 24 hours at 60oC and the content was filtered through Whatman filter paper No.1. The filtrates were used as 5% plant extracts.

 

2.2 Evaluation of seed mycoflora and seed health (seed germination, seedling emergence, shoot, and root length) of pulse.

During present studies, the seeds of Black gram were soaked separately in the leaf, stem, and root petroleum ether extracts (petroleum ether and water 1:1) of the selected plants for 24 hours. The effect of extracts on seed health was studied by placing seeds of test pulse on moist blotter plates and incubated for ten days at room temperature. On eleventh day percent seed mycoflora, seed germination, root and shoot length was recorded. The seeds soaked in sterile distilled water served as control.

 

For seedling emergence, seeds of Black gram were treated as mentioned above and sown in earthen pots containing sterilized soil for ten days; at room temperature. On eleventh day percent, seedling emergence, root, and shoot length was recorded. The seeds soaked in sterile distilled water served as control.

 

3 Results and Discussion

Almost all plants showed restrictive effect on seed mycoflora and stimulatory or supportive activity on seed germination, shoot and root length in more or less quantity.

 

It is evident from the tabulated result that, all the plant extracts were found to be supportive or stimulatory for seedling emergence, shoot and root length of the test pulse in more or less degree, with some exceptions (Table 1).

 

 

Table 1 New ICT based fertility management model in private dairy farm India as well as abroad

 

There was maximum seedling emergence due to plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (leaf 100%), Eucalyptus globulus. Labill. (leaf 100%), Ocimum americanum L. (leaf 100%), Ocimum sanctum L. (stem 100%) and Ruelia tuberosa L. (leaf 100%). These plant extracts showed stimulatory effects on seedling emergence (control 56%).

 

Shoot and root lengths were stimulated due to extracts of Cyperus rotundus L. (leaf 16.3 cm) and Ocimum sanctum L. (leaf 14 cm). Some extracts had inhibitory effects on shoot and root length.

 

Similar findings were recorded on different crops by various workers like Gomati et al. (2000), Ahmed and Aquil (2003), Patni et al. (2005), Rosa-Casian et al. (2007) and Duraipandiyan and Ignacimuthu (2007). Umer et al. (2014) studied Antifungal potential of twenty antagonistic plants was assessed against the most damaging phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. All the test plants inhibited the growth of M. phaseolina significantly to varying levels. Arshad et al. (2012) studied antifungal potential of an allelopathic grass Sorghum halepense Pers. for the management of M. phaseolina isolated from charcoal rot infected cowpea plants. In laboratory bioassays, different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 g/ml) of methanolic extracts of shoot, root and inflorescence of the test grass were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against M. phaseolina. Extracts of all the three parts of the grass exhibited variable antifungal activity. El-Kholie et al. (2012) shown antifungal effects of ehanolic and methanolic extracts of Azadirachta on different fungi. Wadkar and Kadam (2014) tried Argemon maxicana and Calatropis gagantia extracts on root rot of Chickpea and found to be effective. Manoorkar et al. (2015) reported antifungal effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf & latex of Calatropis procera (Ait.) against ten seed-borne dominant fungi viz., Curvularia lunata, Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. terrus A. fumigatus, and Rhizopus sp. Zakaria et al. (2015) found that ethanolic extracts of Datura strumanium, Mentha longifolia and Malva parviflora were effective against Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, and Penicillium italicum.

 

References

Ahmad I., and Aqil, F., 2003, Broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activities and potency of crude alcoholic extract and fractions of Delonix regia flowers, second world congress on “Biotechnological developments of herbal medicine” NBRI, Lucknow, Up, India, February, 74:20-22.

 

Arshad J., Syeda F.N., and Amna S., 2012, Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of sorghum halepense against Macrophomina phaseolina, Journal of medicinal plants research, 6(24):4102-4106.

 

Duraipandiyan V., and Ignacimuthu S., 2007, Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Cassia fistula: an ethno-medicinal plant, Journal of ethnopharmacology, 112(3), 590-594.

         http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.04.008

 

El-Kholie E.M., Mohammed A., Abdelreheem T., and Khader S.A., 2012, Azadirachta indica extracts influenced some pathogenic fungi, African journal of microbiology research, 6(27): 5645-5649.

         http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ajmr12.380

 

Gomati V.H., Chitra and Kannabiran B., 2000, Changes in antifungal activity of leaf extracts extracted under a range of physico-chemical conditions, Proc. 87th Indian Sci. Cong. Part III Abst. Bot:8.

 

Manoorkar V.B., Mandge S.V. and Gachande B.D., 2015, Antifungal activity of leaf and latex extracts of Calatropis procera (ait.) against dominant seed-borne storage fungi of some oil seeds, Bioscience discovery, 6(1):22-26.

 

Patni C.S., Kolte S.J., and Awasthi R.P., 2005, Efficacy of botanicals against Alternaria blight (Alternaria brassicae) of mustard, Indian Phytopath, 58 (4): 426-430.

 

Rosca-Casian O., Parvu M., Vlase L., and Tamas M., 2007, Antifungal activity of Aloe vera leaves, Fitoterapia, 78 (3): 219-222.

         http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2006.11.008

 

Umer I., Tariq M., and Sheikh M.I., 2014, In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antifungal activities of some antagonistic plants against charcoal rot causing fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. Pak. J. Agri. Sci., 51(3): 689-694.

 

Wadkar M.S. and Kadam V.B., 2014, Antimicrobial Activities of Argemone Mexicana and Calatropis gagantia on Root Rot Diseases of Chickpea, Bioscience Discovery, 5(2):248-250.

 

Zakaria A.M., Baka M., Serag S., Mohamed I., and Abo D., 2015, Antifungal activity of medicinal plant extracts against the predominant fungi causing spoilage of some fruits collected from markets of Egypt, Life sciences leaflets, 69:1-10.

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