Research Article

Physicochemical Characteristics of Nun River at Gbarantoru and Tombia Axis in Bayelsa State, Nigeria  

Sylvester Chibueze Izah , Odion David Umoru , Ogaga Augustine Aghoghovwia
1 Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, Faculty of Agriculture, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
2 Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
Bioscience Methods, 2018, Vol. 9, No. 1   doi: 10.5376/bm.2018.09.0001
Received: 27 Apr., 2018    Accepted: 31 May, 2018    Published: 29 Jun., 2018
© 2018 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Aghoghovwia O.A., Umoru O.D., and Izah S.C., 2018, Physicochemical characteristics of nun river at Gbarantoru and Tombia Axis in Bayelsa State, Nigeria, Bioscience Methods, 9(1): 1-11 (doi: 10.5376/bm.2018.09.0001)

 

Abstract

Nun River is a major surface water resource that has its origin from River Niger. In Bayelsa state, the river and its tributaries are major recipient effects due to varying effects of anthropogenic activities on the water ways. This study assessed the physicochemical quality of Nun River at Gbarantoru andTombia town axis in Bayelsa state. Triplicate water samples were collected from 3 locations (viz: A-oil and gas installations, B-Gbarantoru and C-Tombia town). The water samples were analyzed following standard procedures. Results were in the range of 6.27-6.45 pH, 0.03 mg/l Salinity, 59.70-71.65 µS/cm conductivity, 18.52-18.99 NTU turbidity, 29.83-35.83 mg/l total dissolved solid, 1.96-2.13 mg/l total suspended solid, 13.40-15.50 mg/l total alkalinity, 22.20-23.30 mg/l total hardness, 0.97-1.43 bicarbonate, 1.79-2.53 mg/l sulphate, 0.18-0.35 mg/l nitrate, 11.10-14.33 mg/l chloride, 5.96-6.71 mg/l dissolved oxygen, 148.80-157.13 mg/l biological oxygen demand, 7.05-9.20 mg/l calcium, 1.92-3.17 mg/l magnesium, 3.55-4.84 mg/l sodium, 1.17-1.38 potassium. There was significant variation (P<0.05) among the various locations for each of the parameters except for salinity, turbidity and bicarbonate. The water quality parameters under study were within Nigerian Drinking water quality and World Health Organization standard except for turbidity, pH and magnesium. As such, the water requires treatment prior for utilization for domestic purposes.

 

Keywords
Contamination; Health effects; Nun River; Potability; Water quality

Background

Water is an essential resource for the sustenance of life on earth (Izah and Ineyougha, 2015; Izah and Srivastav, 2015; Izah et al., 2016). As such, water is used for several purposes including drinking, washing, bathing, cooking, cleaning by humans, while plants requires water for germination, growth and optimum productivity. Animals require water for growth as well. Most importantly water is a habitat to several diversity of living organisms including fisheries (fin and shelled), macrophytes (aquatic plants) and many other aquatic reptiles, mammals (Izah and Srivastav, 2015).

 

Water typically exists in three forms including solid (ice), gaseous (vapour) and liquid form. Liquid form of water is the most widely utilized and they exist in the surface water (marine, estuarine and freshwater), ground water, rain water (Izah and Srivastav, 2015). Studies have widely indicated that over ⅔ of the earth surface is covered with water. Most potable water resources are from surface fresh water, ground water (borehole) and rain water (Izah and Srivastav, 2015).

 

In the Niger Delta, surface water abounds including marine, estuarine and freshwater. Nun river is a major surface water in Bayelsa state that form several tributaries and are called several names at different locations including creeks, creeklets, streams, rivers, rivulets. The rivers emptied into the ocean through the estuaries in Bayelsa state.

 

Several anthropogenic activities are carried out in the water and/ or close to the surface water resources in Bayelsa state. Some of the activities including dredging (Seiyaboh et al., 2013a, b), boating, swimming, washing etc. The water resources is major recipients of effluents that arise from run offs after downpour (Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001; Ogamba et al., 2015a), wastes from abattoir/slaughterhouse (Ogamba et al., 2015b; Seiyaboh and Izah, 2017a, b), sewage through pier toilet system (Agedah et al., 2015; Ogamba et al., 2015c; Izah and Angaye, 2016a, b), market wastes (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017).

 

The resultant effects of anthropogenic activities could have overall effect on the aquatic ecosystem. Beside impact on the water and sediment quality which have a relationship (Seiyaboh et al., 2016a, b; Kigigha et al., 2018), it could affect aquatic organisms such as fisheries and macrophytes. This is because aquatic organisms have the tendency to bioaccumulate toxicants such heavy metals in their body (Ogamba et al., 2017a, b; Aghoghovwia et al., 2016). When toxicants are accumulated in tissues of aquatic organisms it could have an effects on the consumers of such life forms over a prolong period of time.

 

Several studies have been carried out on surface water resources in Bayelsa state. Some of the notable once include Kolo creek (Ogamba et al., 2015a), Ikoli creek (Ogamba et al., 2015b; Seiyaboh and Izah, 2017a), Nun river (Ogamba et al., 2015c; Seiyaboh et al., 2016b, 2017a; Kigigha et al., 2018), Sagbama creek (Seiyaboh et al., 2017a, b), Taylor and Nun River (Daka et al., 2014), Epie creek (Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001; Seiyaboh et al., 2016a; Ben-Eledo et al., 2017). Most of these studies were carried out with regard to microbial, physicochemical quality of the surface water and sediment. As such there is the need to frequently monitor surface water resources to determine the level of human activities since surface water is used for domestic purposes by the residents aligning surface water system in Bayelsa state.

 

Water quality assessment is carried with regard to three major parameters including physical, chemical and biological analysis. Each of the three major constituents provides vital information about the water quality. Water quality is essential in assessing the productivity level which could influence trophic structure in the aquatic food web. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the physicochemical characteristics of Nun River at Gbarantoru and Tombia town axis in Bayelsa state, Nigeria.

 

1 Materials and Methods

1.1 Study area

Nun River is one of the major surface water resource found in the southern Nigeria. The Rivers has its source from River Niger and it passes through several communities forming tributaries in Bayelsa state and emptied into the Ocean through estuaries. Specifically, the river passes through Tombia and Gbarantoru in Yenagoa local government area of Bayelsa state (Aghoghovwia et al., 2018a,b).. Like most coastal region of Bayelsa state, the surface water is a major recipient of municipal solid wastes and sewage through the use of pier toilet system (Aghoghovwia et al., 2018a,b). The water is also a major sink of runoff resulting from several human activities on land. In the area, there is an oil and gas facilities. The climatic condition of the area especially with regard to temperature and relative humidity is similar to the values that have been widely reported in other part of Niger Delta (Izah et al., 2015; Ogamba et al., 2015b; Izah et al., 2017a, b, c; 2018). Two distinct seasons’ i.e. wet season (April to October) and dry season (November to February) are observed in the area (Ogamba et al., 2015b).

 

1.2 Sampling techniques

Water samples were collected from three locations (viz: location A-around oil and gas installations, B-Gbarantoru and C-Tombia town) using 1000 mL container between December 2017 to February, 2018. The samples were labeled and transported to the laboratory in an ice for analysis.

 

1.3 Analytical procedure

The physico-chemical parameters of the water samples collected including pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, salinity and turbidity were analyzed in-situ using their respective probes. While total hardness, total alkalinity, nitrate, chloride, sulphate, total suspended solid, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and biological oxygen demand were analyzed using the scheme of Ademoroti (1996), APHA (1998).

 

1.4 Statistical analysis

SPSS version 20 was used to carry out the statistical analysis. Data were expressed as mean±Standard deviation. One way analysis of variance was carried out at P<0.05. The means of the each parameter were tested for significance using Duncan multiple range test statistics.

 

2 Results and Discussion

The physicochemical quality of River Nun at Gbarantoru and Tombia towns axis in Bayelsa state is presented in Table 1. While the Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient (r) matrices for the physicochemical parameters under study are presented in Table 2. The overall mean with Nigerian drinking water quality and World Health Organization standard are presented in Table 3.

 

 

Table 1 Physicochemical characteristics of Nun River at Gbarantoru and Tombia axis in Bayelsa state Nigeria

Note: Data mean±Standard Deviation (n=3). Different alphabets along the row indicate significant difference (P<0.05) according to Duncan multiple range test statistics

 

 

Table 2 Spearman rho correlation matrix of the studied physiochemical parameters

Note: “**” Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed); “*” Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)

 

 

Table 3 Physicochemical characteristics of Nun River at Gbarantoru and Tombia axis in Bayelsa state Nigeria in comparison with standard limits

 

2.1 pH

The pH of Nun River at Gbarantoru and Tombia towns axis ranged from 6.27-6.45, being significantly different (P<0.05) among the various locations (Table 1). The pH of water showed positive significant relationship with conductivity, turbidity, total suspended solid and total dissolved solid at P<0.01, potassium at P<0.05 and negative correlate nitrate, chloride, sulphate, calcium and magnesium at P<0.05 (Table 2). Location A-an area around oil and gas facilities had lower (acidic pH) compared to other locations. The variation suggests varying level of anthropogenic activities at the different locations (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017). The values reported in this study is within the value of 5.80-7.57 from Epie creek (Izonfuo and Bariwari, 2001; Ben-Eledo et al., 2017), 5.53-6.85 from Ikoli creek (Ogamba et al., 2015b). But lower than the values previously reported from Tombia bridge construction area (7.4-7.6) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013a), Kolo creek (6.61-7.50) (Aghoghovwia and Ohimain, 2014; Ogamba et al., 2015a), Igbedi creek (7.11-7.32) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013b), Nun river at Amassoma axis (6.53-7.35) (Agedah et al., 2015; Ogamba et al., 2015c), Taylor creek (7.2) (Daka et al., 2014). The variation is associated to the level of acidic material leached into the water from various human anthropogenic activities (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017). Furthermore, seasonal influence could lead to dilution accounting for the difference that exists in the result of this study compared to previous studies. Izonfuo and Bariwari (2001), Ben-Eledo et al. (2017) have reported that water pH could be affected by season. The values observed in this study depicts that the water is not fit for human consumption based on Nigerian drinking water quality and World Health Organization standard for pH (Table 3).

 

2.2 Salinity

The salinity level of the water was 0.03 mg/l. There was no significant variation (P>0.05) among the various locations (Table 1). No significant variation in the various locations suggested that the water quality is uniform with regard to freshness (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017). The values reported in this study is lower compared to the value of 0.12-2.58 mg/l from Epie creek (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017), and had some similarity with the reports from Kolo creek (0.03-0.04‰) (Aghoghovwia and Ohimain, 2015; Ogamba et al., 2015a), Ikoli creek (0.01-0.03 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015b), Nun river at Amassoma axis (0.000-0.050 mg/l) (Agedah et al., 2015; Ogamba et al., 2015c), The similarity suggests that the water is homogenous i.e. fresh water (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017).

 

2.3 Conductivity

The conductivity of the water samples ranged from 59.70-71.65 µS/cm, being significant different among the various locations (Table 1). Conductivity showed positive significant correlation with turbidity, total dissolved solid and total suspended solid at P<0.01, and negatively correlate with nitrate, sulphate, total hardness, calcium and magnesium at P<0.01 (Table 2). The significant variation suggests unevenness in the anthropogenic activities level of the water. The values reported in the study is lower compared to the value of 265.00-1096.75 µS/cm (Epie creek) (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017), 87-95 umhos/cm (Tombia bridge construction area) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013a), 82.30-102.00 µS/cm (Kolo creek) (Aghoghovwia and Ohimain, 2014), but had some similarity with the values of  64.91-97.41 umhos/cm (Igbedi creek) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013b), 57.3-105.0 µS/cm (Ikoli creek) (Ogamba et al., 2015b), 33.167-68.00 µS/cm (Nun river at Amassoma axis) (Agedah et al., 2015; Ogamba et al., 2015c), 47.73-89.33 µS/cm (Epie creek) (Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001), 58.00 µS/cm (Taylor creek) (Daka et al., 2014), and higher than the value of 31.60-39.167 µS/cm (Kolo creek) (Ogamba et al., 2015a). The conductivity level in the water provides information about the total concentration of the ionic solutes (Ogamba et al., 2015c; Ben-Eledo et al., 2017). Based on standards for drinking water, the conductivity is within Nigeria Drinking water standards (Table 3).


2.4 Turbidity

The turbidity level in the water samples ranged from 18.52-18.99 NTU, being not significantly different (P>0.05) among the different locations except for Location C. Turbidity showed positive significant relationship with total dissolved solid and total suspended solid at P<0.01, and negatively correlate with nitrate, chloride, sulphate, total hardness, calcium and magnesium at P<0.01 (Table 2). The variation among the different locations suggests varying level of human activities in the water. The values reported in this study is lower compared to the result from Epie creek (31.29-105.04 NTU) (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017), Taylor creek (58.96 NTU) (Daka et al., 2014), Nun and Igbedi river (25.70-117.252 NTU) (Agedah et al., 2015; Ogamba et al., 2015c), Igbedi creek (35.95-82.32 NTU) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013), Kolo creek (27. 37-40.5 NTU) (Aghoghovwia and Ohimain, 2014; Ogamba et al., 2015a). But within the values reported Tombia bridge construction area (5-64 NTU) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013a), Epie creek (11.67-28.00 NTU) (Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001). The differences among the various studies could be due to seasonal inferences and level of anthropogenic activities prior to sampling (Ogamba et al., 2015c; Ben-Eledo et al., 2017). The values were higher than 5NTU for Nigerian drinking water quality standards (Table 3). This is also a reflection of anthropogenic activities in the water resources (Agedah et al., 2015; Ogamba et al., 2015c; Ben-Eledo et al., 2017).

 

2.5 Total dissolved solid

The total dissolved solid concentration in the water ranged from 29.83-35.83 mg/l, being significantly different (P<0.05) among the different locations (Table 1). Total dissolved solid showed positive significant correlation with total suspended solid at P<0.01, and negative relationship with nitrate, chloride, sulphate, calcium and magnesium at P<0.01 (Table 2). The values reported in this study is lower than the value from Epie creek (33.00-548.50 mg/l) (Izonfuo and Bariwani, 2001; Ben-Eledo et al., 2017, Taylor creek (28.90 mg/l) (Daka et al., 2014), Nun River (28.18-32.55 mg/l) (Agedah et al., 2015), Kolo creek (41.45-51.0 mg/l) (Aghoghovwia and Ohimain, 2014), 28.70-53.0 mg/l (Ikoli creek) (Ogamba et al., 2015b), Igbedi creek (31.93-39.48 mg/l) (Seiyaboh et al, 2013b), Tombia bridge construction area (62.1-67.9 mg/l) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013a). But within the values reported in river Nun at Amassoma axis (10.33-34.33 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015c), Kolo creek (16.10-19.23 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015a). The total dissolved solid in this study is far lesser than Nigerian drinking water quality and world Health organization standard (Table 3). The variation in total dissolved solid could be association to current intensity of the river and well as level of anthropogenic activities (Ogamba et al., 2015c; Ben-Eledo et al., 2017).

 

2.6 Total suspended solid

The total suspended solid concentration in the water samples ranged from 1.96-2.13 mg/l, being significantly different (P<0.05) among the various locations (Table 1). Totals suspended solid showed positive significant correlation with potassium at P<0.05, and negative significant relationship with nitrate, chloride, sulphate, calcium and magnesium at P<0.01 and total hardness at P<0.05 (Table 2). Again, the significant variation among the different locations suggests difference in the level of anthropogenic activities in the water. The values reported in this study is lower than the values reported in Epie creek (3.74-10.562 mg/l) (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017), Nun River at Amassoma axis (3.43-5.47 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015c), Ikoli creek (2.7-4.35 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015b), and within the values of 1.75-3.42 mg/l reported in Kolo creek by Ogamba et al. (2015a). Furthermore, the values in this study is higher than the values 0.05-0.25 mg/l (Kolo creek) (Aghoghovwia and Ohimain, 2014). The variation could be due to low dilution and seasonal effects. The values of total suspended solid are far lower than the limits specified by World Health Organization for drinking water (Table 3).

 

2.7 Total alkalinity

The total alkalinity level in the water samples ranged from 13.40-5.50 mg/l, being not significantly different (P>0.05) among the various location except for Location C (Table 1). Total alkalinity showed positive significant relationship with sodium and negatively correlate with biological oxygen demand at P<0.01 (Table 2). The variation among the different location suggests the level of human activities in the river. The values reported in this study are lower than the values reported in Epie creek (19.20-62.00 mg/l) (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017), Igbedi creek (50.64-67.61 mg/l) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013b). The level of total alkalinity in the water provides valuable information about the acidity of the water. Typically, acidity of water has a relationship with pH and total iron content of water. Furthermore, the total alkalinity of the water is lower than World Health Organization standard.

 

2.8 Total hardness

The level of total hardness of the water ranged from 22.20-23.30 mg/l, being not significantly different (P>0.05) apart from Location A (Table 1). Total hardness showed positive significant relationship with calcium at P<0.05. The total harness concentration of the water were lower than the values reported in Epie creek (52.86-280.00 mg/l) (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017), Nun River at Amassoma axis (0.90-3.33 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015c), Epie creek (2.27-5.27 mg/l) (Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001), Kolo creek (1.03-1.37 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015a). According to Ben-Eledo et al. (2017), the hardness of the water is an indication of the ability of the water to tolerate high soap content. The variation in total hardness could be due difference in anthropogenic activities of the area. The total hardness suggests that the water is not hard and many not waste soap when used for domestic purposes. The hardness is far lower than the standard specified for drink water by Nigerian drinking water quality agency and World Health Organization.

 

2.9 Bicarbonate

The bicarbonate level of the water ranged from 0.97-1.43. Typically, there was no significant variation among the different locations (Table 1). Bicarbonate showed positive significant correlation with sodium at P<0.01, and negative relationship with biological oxygen demand at P<0.05 (Table 2). The bicarbonate values are lower than the values previously reported in some surface water in Bayelsa state including Epie creek (2.18-4.28 mg/l). According to Ben-Eledo et al. (2017), carbonate in water is associated with dissolved ions concentration in the water.

 

2.10 Sulphate

The level of sulphate in the water samples ranged from 1.79-2.53 mg/l, being significantly different (P<0.05) among the different locations. Sulphate showed positive significant relationship with calcium and magnesium at P<0.01, and negatively correlate with potassium at P<0.05 (Table 2). Sulphate concentration in this study is lower than the values previously reported in Epie creek 6.50-14.30 mg/l (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017), Igbedi creek (6.09-8.83 mg/l) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013b), and within the values reported in Ikoli creek (1.4-3.50 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015b), Epie creek (1.98-6.27 mg/l) (Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001), and lower than the values reported in Nun River at Amassoma axis (0.57-0.87 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015c), Kolo creek (0.1-0.57 mg/l) (Aghoghovwia and Ohimain, 2014; Ogamba et al., 2015a). Sulphate in the water could be due to anthropogenic activities and runoff (Ogamba et al., 2015c). The sulphate concentration in this study is lower than the standard specified for drink water by Nigerian drinking water quality agency and World Health Organization.

 

2.11 Nitrate

The concentration of nitrate in the water ranged from 0.18-0.35 mg/l, being significantly different (P<0.05) among the different locations of study. Nitrate showed positive significant relationship with chloride, total hardness, calcium and sulphate at P<0.01, and negatively correlate with potassium at P<0.05. Variation suggests difference in anthropogenic activities likely to affect nitrate concentration. The nitrate concentration in this study is lesser than the values reported in Epie creek 0.63-1.69 mg/l (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017), and had some similarity with the values previously reported in Nun River (0.12-0.81 mg/l) (Agedah et al., 2015; Ogamba et al., 2015c), Epie creek (0.02-0.28 mg/l) (Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001), Kolo creek (0.10-0.24 mg/l) (Aghoghovwia and Ohimain, 2014; Ogamba et al., 2015a), Tombia bridge construction area (0.32-4.15 mg/l) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013a), Taylor creek (0.31 mg/l) (Daka et al., 2014), Ikoli creek (0.12-0.26 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015b), Igbedi creek (0.092-0.226 mg/l) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013b). The variation in nitrate concentration is the amount of organic nitrogen (Ogamba et al., 2015c; Ben-Eledo et al., 2017). Nitrate level in in the water is lesser than the standard specified for drink water by Nigerian drinking water quality agency and World Health Organization.

 

2.12 Chloride

The chloride concentration of the water ranged from 11.10-14.33 mg/l. basically, there was significant variation (P<0.05) among the various locations. Chloride showed positive significant relationship with sulphate, bicarbonate, calcium and magnesium at P<0.01 and total hardness at P<0.05 (Table 2). Variation in chloride concentration is an indication of unevenness in nutrient composition probably due to human activities in the study area. The chloride content in this study is higher than the values previously reported ins some surface water in Bayelsa state including Igbedi creek (0.36-0.46 mg/l) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013b), Ikoli creek (1.60-3.40 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015b), Taylor creek (6.29 mg/l) (Daka et al., 2014), Epie creek (1.65-4.62 mg/l) (Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001), Kolo creek (1.257-1.467 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015a), Nun River (0.50-3.47 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015c) The higher concentrations of chloride content is this study is an indication of higher concentration of cation in the water (Ogamba et al., 2015c; Ben-Eledo et al., 2017). Chloride concentration in the water is lesser than the standard specified for drink water by Nigerian drinking water quality agency and World Health Organization.

 

2.13 Dissolved oxygen

The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water ranged from 5.96-6.71 mg/l. There was significant difference (P<0.05) among the different locations (Table 1). The variation may be associated to the flow rate of the water during the period (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017). The values reported in this study is with the values reported in Epie creek (1.38-9.06 mg/l) (Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001; Ben-Eledo et al., 2017) Kolo creek (5-7.92 mg/l) (Aghoghovwia and Ohimain, 2014). But far higher than the values reported in Igbedi creek (2.7-4.1 mg/l) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013b), Tombia bridge construction area (4.8-5.2 mg/l) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013a), and lower than the values reported in Nun River (10.20-14.23 mg/l) (Agedah et al., 2015). Differences among the various studies may be attributed to time of the sampling (Agedah et al., 2015) and prevailing anthropogenic activities that may have impacted on the water quality.

 

2.14 Biological oxygen demand

Biological oxygen demand concentration of the water samples ranged from 148.80-157.13 mg/l. Typically there was significant variation (P<0.05) among the different locations. Again this could be due to the flow rate as well as level of human activities in the water. The values reported in far higher than the values previously reported in some surface water resources in Bayelsa state including Epie creek (0.31-94.95 mg/l) (Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001; Ben-Eledo et al., 2017) Taylor creek (4.24 mg/l) (Daka et al., 2014), Tombia bridge construction area (2.6-2.9 mg/l) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013a), Igbedi creek (2.4-4.7 mg/l) (Seiyaboh et al., 2013b), Kolo creek (1.50-3.35 mg/l) (Aghoghovwia and Ohimain, 2014). The high biological oxygen demand observed in the present study may be associated with the amount of substances that could reduce oxygen availability in the water (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017). On the overall, the result showed high contamination.

 

2.15 Calcium

The calcium concentration in the water ranged from 7.05-9.20 mg/l. There was no significant variation (P>0.05) among the various locations except for Location A. The differences suggest varying level of anthropogenic activities that could affect cation concentration of the water. Calcium showed positive significant relationship with magnesium at P<0.05 (Table 2). The calcium level observed in the present study is high compared to the values observed in some surface water in Bayelsa state including Nun River at Amassoma axis (0.80-2.33 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015c), Kolo creek (1.107-1.183 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015a), Epie creek (3.20-7.53 mg/l) (Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001), Taylor creek (3.78 mg/l) (Daka et al., 2014), and far lower than the value of observed in Epie creek in 2016 (16.53-43.09 mg/l). The calcium concentration in the water is lesser than the standard specified for drink water by Nigerian drinking water quality agency and World Health Organization (Table 3). High calcium content observed in the present study is a reflection of high cations concentrations in the water (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017).

 

2.16 Magnesium

The magnesium level in the water ranged from 1.92-3.17 mg/l, being significantly different (P<0.05) among the various locations. Magnesium showed negative relationship with potassium at P<0.05 (Table 2). Again, these suggest varying level of anthropogenic activities that could affect water quality. The values observed in this study were slightly lower than the values observed in Epie creek (3.07-10.46 mg/l) (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017), Kolo creek (0.37-0.5 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015a), Nun River at Amassoma axis (0.39-1.466 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015c), and with consonance with the value of 1.77-3.60 mg/l observed in Epie creek by Izonfuo and Bariweni (2001). The magnesium content in the water is higher than the standard specified for drink water by Nigerian drinking water quality agency and lesser than the World Health Organization (Table 3).

 

2.17 Sodium

Sodium level in the water was in the range of 3.55-4.84 mg/l. There was significant variation (P<0.05) among the various locations (Table 1). Sodium showed negative significant correlation with biological oxygen demand at P<0.01 (Table 2). The concentration of sodium observed in this study had some similarity with the values previously reported in Epie creek (2.27-16.02 mg/l) (Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001; Ben-Eledo et al., 2017), and far higher than the values observed in Kolo creek (0.58-0.68 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015a), Nun River at Amassoma axis (0.55-1.31 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015c), and lower than the values reported in Taylor creek (7.42 mg/l) (Daka et al., 2014). High level of sodium in the water depicts nutrient level in the water. Sodium concentration is lesser than the standard specified for drink water by Nigerian drinking water quality agency (Table 3).

 

2.18 Potassium

The potassium level in the water samples ranged from 1.17-1.38, being not significantly different (P>0.05) except for location A. Potassium showed negative significant relationship with biological oxygen demand at P<0.05 (Table 2). The potassium concentration observed were lower compared to the values previously reported in Epie creek (2.24-5.26 mg/l) (Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001; Ben-Eledo et al., 2017), and higher than the values observed in Kolo creek (0.31-0.36 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015a), Nun River at Amassoma axis (0.33-0.82 mg/l) (Ogamba et al., 2015c), The potassium content is reflects the level of activities enriching the water with potassium content.

 

The cations (viz: Calcium, potassium, sodium and magnesium) is vital is evaluating the nutrient and productivity of aquatic ecosystem (Ben-Eledo et al., 2017). The trend of cations in this study were in the order; calcium>sodium>magnesium>potassium. This trend has been previously reported in Epie creek by Ben-Eledo et al. (2017), Izonfuo and Bariweni (2001).

 

Parameters such as total hardness, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium and dissolved oxygen were significantly higher in Location A-an area close to oil and gas installations. Furthermore, total alkalinity, sodium, and bicarbonate were higher in Location B (Gbarantoru axis) and water pH, conductivity, total dissolved solid, total suspended solid and biological oxygen demand were significantly higher in Location C (Tombia town), while salinity were same in all the locations, and potassium were significantly higher in location B and C. These trends suggest that different anthropogenic activities are influencing different water quality parameters under study at different locations.

 

3 Conclusion

The physiochemical characteristics of Nun River were assessed around Tombia and Gbarantoru in Yenagoa local government area of Bayelsa state. Results showed that there were significant variation (P<0.05) among the various locations for majority of the parameters. The study also showed high concentration with regard to chloride, sulphate, magnesium, nitrate, total hardness and dissolved oxygen, and pH tending toward acidity in water samples close to oil and gas installations. On the overall, the water quality was within the limits for drinking water as established by Nigeria Drinking Water Quality and World Health Organization except for pH, turbidity and magnesium. Due to the parameters that exceeded the permissible limits, there is the need for treatment before use within the study area.

 

Author’s contributions

Author OAA conceived the idea and carried out the experimental design. Author ODU carried the sampling, laboratory analysis and managed the literature search. Author SCI carried out the statistical analysis. All authors involved in draft manuscript preparation and approved the final manuscript.

 

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