Research report

Variation and Repeatability of Natural Antibodies Against Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin of Indigenous Chicken of Kenya  

Joel Khobondo1 , Ramadhan Mwakubambanya2 , Chrilukovian Wasike3 , Alexander Kahi1
1 Animal Breeding and Genomics Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Egerton University, P.O. Box 536, 20115 Egerton Kenya
2 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Egerton University P.O. Box 536, 20115 Egerton Kenya
3 Department of Animal Science, Maseno University P.O. Box private Bag, 40105 Maseno Kenya
Author    Correspondence author
Genomics and Applied Biology, 2016, Vol. 7, No. 4   doi: 10.5376/gab.2016.07.0004
Received: 08 Jan., 2016    Accepted: 16 Mar., 2016    Published: 21 Oct., 2016
© 2016 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

 Khobondo J.O, Mwakubambanya. R, Wasike, C.B., and Upreti H.K., 2016, Variation and repeatability of natural antibodies against Keyhole limpet hemocyanin of indigenous chicken of Kenya, Genomics and Applied Biology, 7(3): 1-8 (doi: 10.5376/gab.2016.07.0004)


The immune system is designed to provide protection to the body by combating pathogens. Identifying animals with superior immune responses reduces disease occurrences, increases farm profit and improves product quality and safety. Consequently, there is need to breed disease resistant animals that will eliminate the danger of currently used disease management strategies; drug prophylaxis and vaccination, which are unsafe and ineffective respectively. studies aimed at investigating the mechanisms involved in genetic resistance have been done, however a standardized biological parameter indicative of disease resistance or susceptibility remains elusive. The objectives of the study were to determine presence and variation of IgA, IgG and IgM among indigenous chicken. Estimate repeatability within the indigenous chicken over time of IgA, IgM and IgG natural antibody isotypes against Keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Blood samples from 24 indigenous chickens of the same age and sex were collected four times within three weeks. IgA, IgM and IgG titer values were measured by indirect ELISA from the sera. A mixed model with repeated measures was performed to determine variation and repeatability. All the immunoglubulin isotypes binding KLH in chicken serum were recorded. There was significant difference between isotypes concentrations with IgM and IgA being the lowest and highest titre values, respectively. Repeatability was 0.68, 0.99 and 0.99 for IgM, IgG and IgA, respectively. The isotypes were detectable and variable in serum of indigenous chicken and consistently and repeatedly measurable in blood serum. This finding may lay the basis for genetic improvement of immune response in the indigenous chicken.

Indigenous chicken; Repeatability; Natural antibodies; Variation
[Full-Text PDF] [Full-Flipping PDF] [Full-Text HTML]
Genomics and Applied Biology
• Volume 7
View Options
. PDF(0KB)
. Online fPDF
Associated material
. Readers' comments
Other articles by authors
pornliz suckporn porndick pornstereo . Joel Khobondo
. Ramadhan Mwakubambanya
. Chrilukovian Wasike
. Alexander Kahi
Related articles
. Indigenous chicken
. Repeatability
. Natural antibodies
. Variation
. Email to a friend
. Post a comment