Research Report

Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Varying Levels of Sorghum bicolor Waste Meal  

Tiamiyu L.O. , Okomoda V.T. , Ogodo J.U.
Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Aquaculture, 2016, Vol. 6, No. 20   doi: 10.5376/ija.2016.06.0020
Received: 11 Dec., 2015    Accepted: 14 Mar., 2016    Published: 22 Nov., 2016
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Tiamiyu L.O., Okomoda V.T., and Ogodo J.U., 2016, Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Varying Levels of Sorghum bicolor Waste Meal, International Journal of Aquaculture, 6(20): 1-7 (doi: 10.5376/ija.2016.06.0020)


Sorghum bicolor waste meal is a by-product of sorghum fermentation and contain about 11% crude protein, the process involve in it’s production make it an excellent unconventional feed stuff for animal nutrition, however little is known about it potential in fish nutrition. This study was therefore designed to investigating it’s nutritional value in the diet of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated with Sorghum bicolor waste meal included at 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Fingerlings (2.01g) were fed for 56 day and the growth performance and nutrient utilization determined. Result obtained shows that  Sorghum bicolor waste meal can be included up to 20% without any negative effect on growth (P<0.05), fermentation process involved in the production of the unconventional feed stuff was largely thought to have improved the feed digestibility

Guinea corn waste; NCFRs; Fermentation; African catfish

1 Introduction

The continuous rise in the demand for fish has made aquaculture industry the fastest growing food producing sector in the world (FAO, 2002). Hence, it continuous growth is largely dependent on the ability of fish feed industry to provide quality feed that are nutritionally balanced for best growth performance of cultured fish. Fish feed plays a major role in aquaculture viability and profitability, because it accounts for at least 40–60% of the total production cost (Shang, 1992; Craig and Helfrich, 2002; Jamiu and Ayinla, 2003). The major nutrients in fish feeds are protein and energy. However, conventional feedstuffs for animal feed formulation are dwindling in supply and their prices very high (Tiamiyu et al., 2015). This is largely because of their competitive needs for human consumption, animal and other industrial uses. If aqua-feed industry is to meet the increasing challenges of aquaculture, it is important to focus research into cheap locally available material of unconventional sources as alternative to expensive conventional feedstuffs.
Non-conventional feed resources (NCFRs) are non-competitive in terms of human consumption, very cheap to get, readily available in large quantities (Devendra, 1988) and may constitute nuisance as waste. The search for suitable NCFRs had focused on agricultural by-products of agro-processing industries (Hoffman et al., 1997; Madu et al., 2003). Several of these by-products available in Africa have been evaluated for their performance in poultry and livestock feed (Becker, 1985; Lemma, 1992; Seyoum and Fekede, 2006; Adugna, 2007; Demeke, 2007; Seyoum et al., 2007; Negesse, 2009; Tadessa et al., 2009). However, only a few have been evaluated in fish nutrition (Adamneh et al., 2007; Ashagne et al., 2008).
The nutrient quality of feed ingredient is one of the major prerequisite for production of good quality feeds. However, despite the nutritional values and low cost attributed to various NCFRs, their utilization has been limited due to anti-nutritional factors. NCFRs of plant origin have significant levels of alkaloids, glycosides, oxalic acids, phytates, protease inhibitors, haematoglutinin, saponegin, momosine, cyanoglycosides, linamarin to mention but a few (Sogbesan et al., 2006). These anti-nutritional factors significantly affect growth and other physiological activities at higher inclusion levels (Oresegun and Alegbeleye, 2001). However, they can be removed by conventional processing such as toasting, soaking, hydrothermal treatment, and fermentation (Tiamiyu et al., 2015).
Guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) waste meal is one of such NCFRs found in Africa. Sorghum bicolor is well adapted to the semi-arid and sub-tropical conditions prevailing in most of the African countries (Agu et al., 1998). It is one of the major cereal crops widely grown in Nigeria, and a very important staple food for the populace particularly in the northern part of the country (Tashikalma et al., 2010). The Nigerian sorghum production was 11.5 tons in 2010 and forecasted to get to about 11.7 tons in 2011 (USDA, 2010). The crop yield has increased because of the propagation of improved varieties developed by local research institutes (Leder, 2004). Importantly, it is a very valuable industrial crop for alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks as well as the confectionery industry in Nigeria (Baiyengunhi and Fraser, 2009). Traditional sorghum beers are produced in several countries of Africa. However, variations in the manufacturing process may occur depending on the geographic localization (Lyumugabe et al., 2012). These processes largely involve fermentation and production of large quantity of waste (by-products) which are discarded or sometime used in livestock production. This study is however, designed to investigate the nutritional suitability of feeding Clarias gariepinus with diet containing graded levels of Sorghum bicolor waste meal.
2 Materials and Methods
This study was carried out at the Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research farm, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria. Feed ingredient for the study such as soybeans meal, maize meal, fish meal, salt, vitamin and mineral premises were purchased from a feed store in modern market. The Guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) waste meal was obtained from local beverage stores around Makurdi that produces pito and burukutu (Names for the local alcoholic beverages) has described by Ekundayo (1969). The process of production in brief is as stated below;Sorghum grains are steeped in water (24-48 h) and then, drained.
The grain is allowed to germinate for four to five days and then sun-dried before grinding. The malt flour is mixed with water and the mixture is boiled for 3-4 h to form slurry. During the mashing stage of burukutu production, adjuncts are added in the form of gari (a farinaceous starchy powder produced from cassava, Manihot esculenta). However, adjuncts are not added during the production of pito (Faparusi et al., 1973; Ekundayo, 1969). After cooling, the paste is filtered and left in spontaneous lactic fermentation (acidification) at room temperature for approximately 12 h. More water is added and the mixture is cooked for 3 h and cooled to around 20 to 29 C. Cooled wort are subsequently left to ferment at room temperature for 12-24 h. The two resulting products are: a top clear supernatant, called “pito” and a thick brown suspension, called “burukutu” this is then filtered using a fine mesh and the residue (waste meal) discarded.
The soybeans in this study were toasted at 1000C for 30 minutes to inactivate the ant-nutritive factors such as trypsin following the method of Tiamiyu et al. (2011). Toasting was carried out by continuous stirring in fine texture sand heated on a hot plate. This ensured uniformity and prevents charring of the seed by the heat. The toasted seeds were then ground into fine powder using a hammer mill and stored in separate packaging materials in a cool dry place for the diet formulation. Five iso-nitrogenous diets of 35% crude protein were formulated using Pearson’s square method with Guinea corn waste meal included at 5, 10, 15, and 20% as shown in Table 1. The different quantities of the feedstuffs required for each diet were then weighed and dry-mixed into a bowl. After which hot water was used to wet mix the feed so resulted into tough-dough formed. The resulting dough was pelleted using an electric pelleting machine.


Table 1 Percentage composition of experimental diet


Three hundred and fifty Clarias gariepinus fingerlings with initial mean weight of 2.01±0.03 g were obtained from the University of Agriculture fish farm, acclimatized for two weeks and randomly distributed into triplicate hapas nets measuring 1 m3 fixed in an earthen pond (45x45x2 m3). Each hapa had 20 fingerlings. The fingerlings were fed daily at 5% of their body weight for eight weeks. Fingerlings were bulk weighed every week and the feed adjusted appropriately based on growth recorded per hapa of each treatment. Water quality parameters were monitored and ensured that they are within recommended range throughout the experimental period.

After feeding the fish for eight weeks, growth performance and nutrient utilization were assessed using the relations below
(a) Mean Initial Weight (MIW) =
(b) Mean Weight Gain (MWG) =
Mean final weight – Mean initial weight
(c) Growth rate =
(d) Specific Growth Rate (%/day) =
Where Wt1= Initial
Wt1= Initial weight; Wt2= Final weight
T2-T1= Duration in days between taking the initial and final weight.
(e) Feed Fed (FF) =
(f) Feed conversion ratio (FCR) =
(g) Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) =
(h) Protein efficiency ratio (PER) =
Where Protein fed =
(i) Apparent net protein utilization (ANPU) was computed at the end of the experiment as ANPU =
Where protein gain is the difference between initial and final carcass protein, Protein fed is the crude protein of the diet fed the fish.
(j) % survival rate =
Proximate composition of the diet, carcass of fish before and after the feeding trial were determined using the official method by AOAC (2000), summary statistics of the different variables measured across the treatment were obtained using Minitab 14 for windows software. Result was then subjected to Analysis of variance and where significant differences occurred; means were separated using Fisher’s least significant difference.
3 Results and Discussion
The mean water quality parameter values recorded in this study (Table 5) are within recommended ranges for culture of fish as reported by Boyd (2001). Hence were not thought to influence the outcome of this research. According to the report of Falaye and Oloruntuyi (1998), the usefulness of unconventional feedstuffs in fish diets depends on certain factor such as availability, palatability, proximate composition and digestibility of nutrients. The crude protein content of guinea corn waste meal is 11% (Table 1). Mebude et al. (2015) had stated that the nutritional component of unconventional feed vary with their composition, origin and processing methods. Mustafa and Alamin (2012) reported 20.87% CP for watermelon seed meal, while Elezuo et al. (2011) and Essien et al. (2009) reported 16.95% and 24.51% respectively for the same unconventional feedstuff. Akegbejo-Samson (2004), Sotolu and Byanyiko (2010) and Tiamiyu et al. (2014) had also reported 9% CP for Parkia biglobosa. Solomon and Okomoda (2012) reported crude protein of 17.6% for duckweed. However Erdal et al. (2004) and Flavia et al. (2008), had earlier reported 18.38% and 38.03% CP for wet and dried duckweed respectively.
Result of the present study reveal significant increase in fibre content (Table 2) as the level of inclusion of guinea corn waste meal (GWM) increased in the iso-nitrogenous diets produce, Cho and Kaushik (1990) had predicted that feeds containing high amount of fibre content have very low digestibility. Falaye et al. (1999) further confirm this when they reported lower digestibility coefficient for African catfish fed increased cocoa husk. They opined that elevated crude fibre of the diet resulting from the complex polysaccharides of the husk were poorly digested. However, the results of the growth performance and nutrient utilization (Table 3) of Clarias gariepinus fed the different diet in this study did not reveal any detrimental effect on growth. It was therefore concluded that the fibre content were still within tolerable ranged in the diet of African catfish even at 20% inclusion level.


Table 2 Proximate composition of formulated diets

Note: Mean value in the same row (excluding GWM) with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05)



Table 3 Growth performance and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus fed varying levels of guinea corn waste meal

Note: Mean in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05)


The performance recorded for the various experimental diets in this study compared to the control could be as a result of effectively utilization of the protein quality of guinea corn waste meal by Clarias gariepinus. Devendra (1988) earlier opined that the use of waste meal in the diet of fish could potentially improve the value of the feed. Report on the utilization of unconventional feed stuff in the diet of fish is highly varied and dependent on several factors such as the species of fish under study, nature of the unconventional feed stuff, anti-nutritional content and the processes involved to reduce the anti-nutritional factor. Falaye and Oloruntuyi (1998) had reported depressed growth in fish fed plantain peel meal in the diet of African catfish. Falaye et al. (1999) also reported lower growth rates in C. gariepinus fed high level of cassava leaf meal. In the same vein, Olaniyi and FaIaye (2007) reported best performance of Clarias gariepinus fed diet containing 3.96% fermented millet and at a replacement level of 20% for maize meal. They further reported that inclusion level up to 16% was comparable to the control. Also, Burtle and Newton (1995) revealed that channel catfish can tolerate pearl millet maize ratio of up to 2:3 in its diet. Reports from several other authors also concludes that increasing inclusion of most by-products to the level of total replacement of conventional feedstuff leads to reduction in performance (Adebowale and Olubamiwa, 2008; Olubamiwa et al., 2011)


The processes involved in the production of local sorghum beers and beverages from where GWM is usually gotten must have resulted in significant reduction in the anti-nutritional factors. Oresegun and Alegbeleye (2001) had stated that anti-nutritional factors significantly affects growth and other physiological activities at higher inclusion levels. However Tiamiyu et al. (2015) stated that most anti-nutritional factors are easily removed by processing methods such as toasting, soaking, hydrothermal treatment, and fermentation. Fermentation is a significant processes in the beer industry and therefore not only reduce anti-nutritional factor but improve digestibility of the feedstuff. Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) may not speak much about the expected economic performance of a diet; however, it is a good indicator of biological efficiency (Mebude et al., 2015). The insignificant values observed for FCE in this study may be inferred as indication of equivalent biological efficiency. Also, the insignificant (P<0.05) protein efficiency ratio of fish in this study further attest to the fact that utilization of nutrients in the diets were not affected negatively with increasing levels of fermented guinea corn waste meal. This is in line with the works of Abd-Elrazig-SM et al. (1998) who reported insignificant responses with pearl millet meal.


Results of carcass analysis of Clarias gariepinus fed the different levels of GWM revealed that protein, fat and fibre content of Clarias gariepinus were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control and the initial values before the experiment (Table 4). This is likely due to the effective utilization of the feedstuff which lead to a protein sparingly effects for energy. Contrary to this study Olaniyi and FaIaye (2007) reported only slight increase in carcass protein and inverse trend of carcass lipid compared to the control. This is in line with the observations of Fagbenro (1992) on Clarias isheriensis fed cocoa husk based meal (Figure 1) .



Table 4 Carcass analysis of Clarias gariepinus fed different levels of guinea corn waste meal before and after the experiment

Note: Mean value in the same row with different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05)



Table 5 Mean water quality parameter during the study

Note: Mean value in the same row do not differ significantly



Figure 1 Weekly growth of Clarias gariepinus fed the experimental diets


4 Conclusions

It can therefore be concluded that Clarias gariepinus can utilized dietary inclusions of guinea corn waste meal up to 20% without adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization of the fish. It is recommended that this feed source be exploited in feed production as large amount are produced and wasted everyday constituting nuisance in dump site.

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