Research Report

The Potential of Different Extraction Methods of Soursop (Annona Muricata Linn) Leaves as Antimicrobial Agents for Aquatic Animals  

Olusola S.E.1 , Fakoya S.2 , Omage I.B.2
1 Department of Biological Sciences (Fisheries and Aquaculture Programme), Ondo State University of Science and Technology, Okitipupa, Nigeria
2 Department of Biological Sciences (Microbiology Programme), Ondo State University of Science and Technology, Okitipupa, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Aquaculture, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 18   
Received: 22 Sep., 2017    Accepted: 20 Oct., 2017    Published: 10 Nov., 2017
© 2017 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract

A cup plate diffusion method was employed to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activities of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of soursop (Annona muricata) leaves against four clinical strains of bacteria isolates from Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus. They were Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus iniae, Aeromonas hydrophila and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of soursop leaves were established through standard methods. Data obtained were subjected to ANOVA at P = 0.05. The diameter of zone of inhibition varies depending on pathogens and method of extraction. An average diameter of zone of inhibition ranges from without inhibition zone in control to 20 ± 0.01 mm, without inhibition zone in control to 21 ± 0.02 mm and without inhibition zone in control 25 ± 0.01 mm for aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts respectively. The extracts displayed higher activities to the Gram positive organisms. Chloramphenicol and distilled water were used as control. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of tannins, glucosinolates, phenols, amino acids and polysterols and absence of saponins. The result of MIC of soursop leaves extracts on the pathogens investigated was 500 µg/ ml, 500 µg/ ml and 1000 µg/ml for aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts respectively. The results indicated that different methods of extraction of soursop leaves had antimicrobial activity on the pathogens (B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. iniae, A. hydrophila and A. niger) and suggested that soursop extracts can be used in fish farming to inhibit bacterial growth and improved fish health.

Keywords
Soursop leaves; Fish pathogen; Phytochemical; Antimicrobial
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