Screening of the RET Proto-oncogene in Families with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 in Algeria  

Soumeya N Fedala , Mahdi Ali Haddam , Farida Chentli , Lakhdar Griene , Mohamed Chikouche , Radhia Ridas
1 Bab El Oued Hospital, Algeria
2 Bologhine Hospital, Algeria
3 Center of Pierre Et Marie Curie, Algeria
4 Ain naadja Hospital, Algeria
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Clinical Case Reports, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 16   doi: 10.5376/ijccr.2013.03.0016
Received: 24 Oct., 2013    Accepted: 05 Nov., 2013    Published: 06 Nov., 2013
© 2013 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract

The MEN 2 is a hereditary disorder of dominant autosomal inheritance with complete penetrance associated with germeline RET gene mutations a genetic marker of MTC. The systematic analysis of this gene in any MTC or suspiscion of MEN2A allows for the presymptomatic diagnosis of familial forms. Specific and early treatment, by a surgery cure, of related with genetic risk at an early clinicopathological stage allows a fit treatment, the only guarantee. Three index cases with endocrine neoplasia were hospitalized at the Department of Endocrinology: Two patients 36 years old and 44 years old for exploration and management of bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma and the other patient aged 40 years old to support a medullary thyroid carcinoma. The three patients underwent endocrine and morphological exploration seeking MEN 2a. The three patients had primary hyperparathyroidism by adenoma, MTC and pheochromocytoma. Direct sequencing of exons in three index cases revealed a mutation at codon 634 in exon 11 of the RET gene with two types of mutations: A transition TgC in the heterozygous state transforming cysteine to arginine (C634R) in the first and third family (2/3 of the cases studied); A transition G gA in the heterozygous state changing the cysteine to tyrosine (C634Y) in the second group (1/3 of the cases studied). Phenotypic and genotypic correlation was found. The extended to members of the three families (siblings, parents and direct and collateral descendants) survey has been accepted by 11 subjects. 5 of them will carry the familial mutation (45.5% of subjects). The clinical and paraclinical found no manifestation of MEN 2 out of MTC. Total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection were indicated for them. The MEN2A syndromic disorders are serious multi-cancerous conditions. Their diagnosis is based on the recognition of their family character, and on exploration highlighting various endocrine abnormalities. Confirmation by the genetic study of RET gene enables a presymptomatic screening and early therapeutic care in related. 

Keywords
Multiple endocrine neoplasia typ2; RET gene; Medullary thyroid cancer; Genetic study
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