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Comparative Field Efficacy of Different Treatment Schedules against Aphid spp. Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Aphis gossypii Glover on Potato  

B. Kahar1 , P. Mondal2 , A. Konar3
1. Visva-Bharati University, Department of Plant Protection, P.O. Santiniketan, Birbhum, & Faculty of Panchakot Mahavidyalaya, purulia, West Bengal, India
2. Visva-Bharati University, Department of Zoology, P.O. Santiniketan, Birbhum,West Bengal, India
3. Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Department of Agricultural Entomology, P.O. Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Horticulture, 2016, Vol. 6, No. 6   doi: 10.5376/ijh.2016.06.0006
Received: 07 Dec., 2015    Accepted: 12 Jan., 2016    Published: 13 Feb., 2016
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Kahar B., Mondal P., and Konar A., 2016, Comparative field efficacy of different treatment schedules against aphid spp. Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Aphis gossypii Glover on potato, International Journal of Horticulture, 6(6): 1-6 (doi: 10.5376/ijh.2016.06.0006)

Abstract

The present field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of seven different treatment schedules during rabi season from November to February in 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively against aphids, namely, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Aphis gossypii Glover on potato at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly, West Bengal. All the treatment schedules were significantly superior over control throughout the experimental period. Among the seven treatment schedules, T1, which received phorate 10 G @ 1.5 kg a. I/ha at planting, followed by spraying of chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2.5 ml/lit of water at 40 days after planting (DAP), imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 1.5 ml/7.5 lit of water at 55 DAP and cartap hydrochloride 50 SP @ 1g/lit of water at 75 DAP was most effective and the aphid population never crossed the economic threshold level i.e. 20 aphids/100 compound leaves which was followed by T2 and T3 than other treatments as well as control (T7). The per cent reduction of aphid population over control was recorded highest in T1 (92.44 – 93.11), which was succeeded by T3 (88.87 – 89.35), T2 (88.46 – 91.30), T5 (85.67 – 87.60), T6 (82.72 – 84.10) and T4 (75.93 – 78.18) respectively. Maximum marketable yield of potato tubers (t/ha) was obtained in T2 (26.28-26.80), followed by T5 (26.25-26.67) than other treatments and it was found minimum in control (14.17-15.69). Cost benefit ratio was found highest in T2 (1:18.43-1:25.99) while it was noted lowest in T6 (1:9.50-1:11.45)

Keywords
Potato; Aphids; Insecticidal treatment; Field efficacy; Comparison

Introduction

Potato, Solanum tuberosum Linn., is a world food crop and can be compared only with rice, wheat and maize for its contribution towards securing food and nutrition and avoiding the poverty and hunger especially in the developing world. Thus potato ranks first among vegetables in per capita consumption in many countries and is the second crop in protein production after soya bean (Anonymous, 1990).
 
In India, potato is grown in almost all the states and under very diverse conditions. Among the states, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Bihar accounted for nearly 71% area and 76% production of the country (Chadha, 2002). In West Bengal potato is the most important food crop next to cereals and the state ranks second position in area and production and first position in productivity in the country (Rai, 2003). Potato is infested by more than 100 arthropods from various parts of the world (Simpson, 1977). Among these pests aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphididae: Hemiptera) is the most important sucking pest, which not only cause direct damage by sucking plant sap, but also transmitting different potato viruses (Khurana, 2000). Therefore to minimize the infestation of aphid, a number of synthetic insecticides are applied randomly, but with limited success. Spraying of the chemicals is responsible for the environmental pollution among man and animals. Thus a field experiment was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of different treatment schedules including chemicals and non-chemicals against aphids on potato with polluting the total ecosystem.
 
Results
In the first year of present study during 2012-13, all the treatment schedules were significantly superior over control (Table 2). Among the seven treatment schedules, only in T1, which received phorate 10 G@ 1.5 kg a. I/ha at planting followed by spraying of chlorpyriphos 20EC @ 2.5 ml/lit of water at 40 DAP, imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 1.5 ml/7.5 lit of water at 55 DAP and cartap hydrochloride 50 SP @ 1g/lit of water at 70 DAP, the aphid population never cross the critical level i.e. 20 aphids/100 compound leaves. T2 and T3 were also maintained lower population of aphid throughout the crop life by supporting 10.13 and 9.77 mean aphid population per 100 compound leaves as compared to 87.80 in control (T7). The per cent decrease of aphid population over control was found maximum in T1 (93.11) which was succeeded by T3 (88.87), T2 (88.46), T5 (85.67), T6 (82.77) and T4 (75.93), respectively.
 
In the second year of study during 2013-14, it has been observed that all the treatment schedules were significantly reduced the aphid population throughout the period of crop growth (Table 3). Among the seven different treatments T1 (Table 1) was found most effective in minimizing the incidence of aphids on potato below its critical level which was followed by T2, T3, T5, T6 and T4, respectively than control (T7). The average aphid population on potato was found minimum in T1 (7.16 per 100 compounds leaves) which was trailed by T2 (8.24), T3 (10.08), T5 (11.74), T6 (15.05), T4 (20.66) and T7 (94.69). Thus T1 obtained highest percentage of reduction of aphid population (92.44) over control and then in order were T2 (91.30), T3 (89.35), T5 (87.60), T6 (84.10) and T4 (78.18), respectively.
 

Table 1 Insecticidal treatment schedules for control of aphid on potato

 

Table 2 Population dynamics of aphid on potato under different treatment schedules during 2012-13 at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly, West Bengal (Mean of three replications)

Note: Figures in parenthesis are logarithmic transformed values

 

Table 3 Population dynamics of aphid on potato under different treatment schedules during 2013-14 at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly, West Bengal (Mean of three replications)

Note: Figures in parenthesis are logarithmic transformed values

 

Discussions
From the results of both years of study, it is evident that among the seven different treatment schedules, T1 (Table 1) was recorded most effective in reducing the aphid population over control below its economic threshold level  (20 aphids/100 compound leaves) all round the crop season which was succeeded by T2, T3, T5, T6 and T4 respectively. T1 treatment schedule containing only chemical insecticides and maintained the aphid population
 
below its critical level throughout the crop life. T2, in which the seeds were treated with imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 1.5 ml/7.5 lit of water at the time of planting, followed by spraying of acephate at 40 DAP, imidacloprid at 55 DAP and chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin at 70 DAP and T3 in which received soil application of phorate 10 G at planting, and then spraying of chlorpyriphos at 40 DAP, azadirachtin at 55 DAP and Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki at 70 DAP, also achieved better control of the pest. But among these two treatment schedules, T2 was quite better (88.46-91.30%) in decreasing the aphid population over control than T3 (88.87-89.35%). This is due to the fact that in the former schedule, only chemical insecticides were used and the second and third treatments were done with systemic insecticide (acephate and imidacloprid) which were sprayed at the time of aphid population development, but in later schedule, only phorate was applied as systemic insecticide along with two bio-pesticides. For the same reason, T5 was quite effective (85.67-87.60% decrease of aphid population over control) than T6 (82.77-84.10% decrease of aphid population over control) in controlling the pest of potato. These results are in line with the findings of Konar and Chettri (2003), Konar et al. (2003), Paul and Konar (2004), Paul et al. (2005) who evaluated the efficacy of single component against aphid, but not in a schedule of different insecticides throughout the crop life. The marketable tuber yield (t/ha) during 2012-13, was found maximum in T2 (26.28), followed by T5 (26.25), T1 (22.92), T3 (21.67), T6 (20.14), T4 (18.19) and control, T7 (15.69), respectively (Table 4). T5 recorded highest additional benefit (Rs. 29,040 per ha) over control, while it was lowest in T4 (Rs. 6,875 per ha). Maximum gain (Rs/ha) in income was also found from T5 (Rs. 27,597) and then in order were T2 (Rs. 25,015), T1 (Rs. 18,169), T3 (Rs. 14,980), T6 (Rs. 11,072) and T4 (Rs. 5,805) respectively. Similar trend was also observed when the cost-benefit ratio (CBR) was considered and these were in T5 (1:19.12), T2 (1:18.43), T1 (1:10.61), T3 (1:10.22), T6 (1:9.50) and T4 (1:5.42), respectively.
 
During 2013-14, the highest marketable yield (t/ha) of potato tuber was achieved in T2 (26.80) which was succeeded by T5 (26.67), T3 (23.33), T1 (23.19), T4 (19.44), T6 (19.17) respectively than control, T7 (14.17). Increased production (t/ha) over control was found maximum from T2 (12.63), which was followed by T5 (12.50), T3 (9.16), T1 (9.02), T4 (5.27) and T6 (5.00) respectively (Table 4). Hence the added benefit (Rs. /ha) over control was recorded highest in T2 (Rs. 36,627) and lowest in T6 (Rs. 14,500). Thus T2 was most economical as it produced maximum net profit per ha and CBR (Rs. 35,270 and 1:25.99 respectively) succeeded by T5 (Rs. 34,807 and 1:24.12), T3 (Rs. 25,099 and 1:17.13), T1 (Rs. 24,445 and 1:14.27), T4 (Rs. 14,213 and 1:13.28) and T6 (Rs. 13,335 and 1:11.45), respectively.
 

Table 4 Cost effectiveness of different treatment schedules against pests of potato during 2012-13 and 2013-14

Note: Selling price of potato = Rs. 2,900 per ton during 2012-13; Selling price of potato = Rs. 3,000 per ton during 2013-14

 

From the results of two consecutive potato growing seasons during 2012-13 and 2013-14, it may be concluded that amongst the seven different treatment schedules T5 (Table 1) and T2 (Table 1) were much better in increasing the marketable tuber yield of potato and net return over control than other treatments. The present results support the findings of Tripathi et al. (2003).
 
Materials and Methods
The present field experiment was undertaken to work out the bio-efficacy of different insecticidal treatment schedules including control against aphids on potato for two consecutive rabi seasons from November to February in 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively at Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly, West Bengal. The seed tubers of potato cv. Kufri chandramukhi were planted by end November in the plots having 3.6m x 2m area. Each plot had 6 rows with 10 tubers or plants/row, i.e. 60cm x 20cm spacing between row to row and plant to plant, respectively was maintained. All standard agronomic practices, recommended for this region, were strictly followed during raising the crop. The crop was dehaulmed at an age of 85 days and 10 days after dehaulming it was harvested from the field.
 
Seven different insecticidal treatment schedules including control were assessed against aphid in a RBD (Randomized Block Design) and each schedule was replicated thrice. The schedules were consisting of both chemical and non-chemical insecticides as mentioned in table 1. During the crop season, weekly observations were recorded on the population of aphids. Aphid population was counted by 100-leaf index method detailed by Simpson (1940), i.e. the population of aphid was observed from one upper, one middle and one lower compound leaves of randomly selected 33 plants and one leaf from 34 plant (Aphid population was noted from 100 compound leaves). The weights of healthy and damaged tubers in each plot for each treatment were also taken during harvesting and thereafter, the data were analyzed after converting them into necessary forms. The cost-benefit ratio (CBR) for respective treatment schedules was computed and analyzed with the help of market value of insecticides as well as potato tubers.
 
Data analysis
All the data were analyzed by different statistical analysis.
 
Author’s contributions
BK designed the draft of the manuscript with the help of other authors and institutional supports.
PM helps in draft corrections.
AK gives the idea of the experiment.
 
Acknowledgement
The authors are grateful to the Farm Manager, Adisaptagram Block Seed Farm, Hooghly, West Bengal for providing various facilities including land to conduct the present field trial.
 
References
Anonymous, 1990, FAO Production Yearbook, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation, Rome, pp.45-60
 
Chadha K.L. (eds.), 2002, In: Handbook of Horticulture, ICAR, New Delhi, pp. 8-10
 
Chourasia N., Mandal S., and Konar A., 2004, Efficacy of synthetic insecticides and bio-pesticides against potato aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Aphis gossypii Glover in eastern gangetic plains, J. Ent. Res., 28(4): 1-3
 
Khurana S.M.P. (eds.), 2000, In: Diseases and Pests of potato- A Manual, CPRI, Shimla, HP. pp. 41-66
 
Konar A., and Chettri M., 2003, Effectiveness of synthetic insecticides, bio-pesticides and azadirachtin against potato aphids, J. Indian Potato Association, 30(3-4): 331-334
 
Konar A., and Paul S., 2005, Comparative field efficacy of synthetic insecticides and bio-pesticides against aphids on potato, Annuals of Plant Protection Science, 13(1): 34-36
 
Konar A., Paul S. and Chettri M., 2003, Efficacy of synthetic insecticides, bio-pesticides and azadirachtin against aphids on potato in West Bengal, Abstract of the National Symp. on “Assessment and Management of Bio-resources”, Univ. North Bengal, pp. 30
 
Paul S., and Konar A., 2004, Aphid management for virus free potato seed tuber production in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal, The Horticultural Journal, 17(3): 253-258
 
Paul S., Konar A. and Mandal S., 2003, Efficacy of synthetic pesticides and bio-pesticides against potato aphids in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal. Proceedings of National Symp. on “Frontier Areas of Entomological Research”, IARI, New Delhi, pp.155-156
 
Rai M., 2003, Role of potato in food and nutritional security in developing countries with special reference to India, Proceeding of National Symp.”Potato Research towards National Food and Nutritional Security”, CPRI, Shimla H.P., pp.28-30
 
Simpson S.W., 1940, Aphid and their relation to the field transmission of potato viral diseases in north-east Marine, Naive Agricultural Experiment-Statistical Bulletin, pp 403
 
Tripathi D.M., Bisht R.S., and Mishra P.N., 2003, Bioefficacy of some synthetic insecticides and biopesticides against black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon infesting potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Garhwal Himalaya, Indian J. Ent., 65(4): 468-473
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