Research Article

Studies on Gene Action and Combining Ability of Cytoplasmic-Genic Male Sterility System based Hybrids in Pigeonpea Cajanus Cajan (L.) Millsp.  

Soni Neetu1 , Patel P.T.2
1 M.Sc., Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, C.P. College of Agriculture, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, 385 506. Dist. Banaskantha, Gujarat state, India
2 Associate Research Scientist (Plant Breeding), Spices Research Station, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Jagudan 382 710 Dist, Mehsana, Gujarat state, India
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Horticulture, 2016, Vol. 6, No. 24   doi: 10.5376/ijh.2016.06.0024
Received: 13 Oct., 2016    Accepted: 30 Nov., 2016    Published: 10 Dec., 2016
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Soni N., and Patel P.T., 2016, Studies on gene action and combining ability of cytoplasmic-genic male sterility system based hybrids in pigeonpea [Cajanus Cajan (L.) Millsp.], International Journal of Horticulture, 6(24):1-7 (doi: 10.5376/ijh.2016.06.0024)

Abstract

The present investigation was undertaken with different newly developed six cytoplasmic male sterile (A) lines and five pollen fertility restorers (R) lines as testers were crossed in a line x tester mating design for ascertaining their general and specific combining ability for yield and its component traits in pigeonpea [Cajanus Cajan (L.) Millspaugh.]. The mean sum of squares due to line x testers interaction were significant for all the characters except plant height, revealed the significant contribution of hybrids for specific combining ability variance components. The ratio of σ2gca/ σ2sca being more than unity was found for the traits, days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height and biological yield, which indicated greater role of additive genetic variance for the inheritance for these traits suggesting and indicated to further improvement as a source of favourable genes for earliness and yield improvement through selection of desired transgressive segregants from segregating generation. The ratio σ2gca/ σ2sca being less than unity was found for the traits, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod length, 100-seed weight, seed yield per plant, harvest index, protein content and leaf area, which exhibited greater role of non- additive genetic variance for the inheritance for these traits and indicated to exploitation of these traits for improvement of yield through heterosis breeding. Among parents, CMS GT 603 A (28.43) and GTR 95 (17.24) were good general combiner for seed yield and its contributing traits viz. pod length, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod length, biological yield and leaf area, CMS GT 33 A (0.48) and CMS GT 301 A (0.19) for protein content, CMS GT 33 A (-17.93), CMS GT 288 A (-9.03), GTR 52 (-1.40) and GTR 8 (-0.62) recorded for earliness. These parents can be improved further through intensive crossing programme and subsequent selection of transgressive segregants in desired direction. Hybrids CMS GT 33 A X GTR 18 (29.31), CMS GT 302 A X GTR 8 (25.27), CMS GT 601 A X GTR 52 (21.35) and CMS GT 288 A X GTR 95 (20.89) were the best for seed yield per plant . These crosses had also high sca values for its contributing traits viz. number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length, harvest index, biological yield and leaf area. These crosses involved poor x average, poor x poor and average x poor combining parents and better performance reflected involvement of interaction of dominant and epistasis type gene action for this trait. So, these crosses can be exploited through hybrid breeding programme.

Keywords
Combining ability; Pigeon pea

Introduction
Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.], (2n=2x=22) member of family Fabaceae is an important pulse crop of India. The development of hybrid pigeonpea using cytoplasmic genetic male sterility is very much required to break the yield platue of this crop. Exploitable hybrid vigour requires availability of cytoplasmic nuclear male sterility and fertility restoration system and sound seed production techniques are the pre-requisites for the success of any hybrid breeding programme. Fertility restorers were identified for cytoplasmic male sterile lines (Chauhan et al., 2004), Characterized (Acharya et al., 2005) and combining ability and hybrid vigor studied for grain yield and it’s contributing traits by using cms lines and pollen fertility restorer lines (Patel and Tikka , 2014a; Patel and Tikka, 2014b). Combining ability analysis was, therefore, carried out in present investigation to obtain information on gca effects of parents (lines and testers) and sca effects of crosses which would help in selection of better parents and cross combinations for their future use in hybrid breeding programme. This will also provide the information regarding the type and magnitude of gene action, which will help in choice of the type of breeding method to be utilized for the improvement of the yield and related traits.
 
1 Materials and Methods
The thirty hybrids obtained through hand pollination during kharif 2014 at Main Pulses Research Station, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, SardarKrushinagar using newly developed six cytoplasmic male sterile lines and five diverse restorers as pollinators in a line x tester mating design. The experiment was conducted during kharif 2015. The latitude and longitude were 240 12' N and 720 12' E. The altitude and soil type were 154.5 m and loamy sand, for these location. Six cytoplasmic male sterile lines, five pollen fertility restorer line as male parents, thirty synthesized hybrids and standard check viz. GTH 1, GT 101 and VAISHALI were evaluated using randomized block design with three replications. Each genotype was represented by a single row plot of 4.0 m length. The inter and intra row distances were 60 and 20 cm, respectively. All the agronomical practices and plant protection measures were followed for raising the good crop. Observations were recorded on five randomly selected competitive plants of each genotype in each replication for various characters i.e. plant height (PH) (cm), number of branches per plant (BP), number of pods per plant (PP), pod length (PL) (cm), Number of seeds per pod (SP), 100-seed weight (g) (TW), seed yield per plant (g) (SY), biological yield per plant (g) (BY). Days to flower (DF) on the basis of 50 % plants of each genotype flowered, days to maturity (DM) on the basis of 80 % plants of each genotype matured were recorded. The protein content (PC) was estimated in percentage by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique (Tiwari et al., 1974). Harvest Index calculated by using following formula ((Economic yield/Biological yield) x 100). The replication wise mean values were used in statistical analysis. The data were analyzed for combining ability (general and specific) following Kempthorne (1957).
 
2 Results and Discussions
The analysis of variance for combining ability by partitioning the total genetic variance into general combining ability representing additive genetic variance and specific combining ability as a measure of non-additive genetic variance was carried out for different characters and are presented in Table 1. The mean sum of squares due to lines were significant for all characters except number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod length, 100-seed weight and protein content. The mean sum of squares due to tester were significant for plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, seed yield, harvest index , biological yield and leaf area. The mean sum of squares due to line x testers interaction were significant for all the characters except plant height, revealed the significant contribution of hybrids for specific combining ability variance components. The mean squares due to tester were larger in magnitude for number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod than the lines indicated greater contribution of tester to these traits.
 
 

Table 1 Analysis of variance for combining ability for different characters in pigeonpea

Note: *, ** Significant at 5 per cent and 1 per cent levels of significance, respectively

 

The ratio of σ2gca/σ2sca being more than unity was found for days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height and biological yield, which suggested greater role of additive genetic variance in the inheritance of these traits. These traits can be improved further as a source of favourable genes for earliness and yield through selection of desired transgressive segregants from segregating generation. The above results were in accordance with the findings of Sharma et al. (1972) and Sreelakshmi et al. (2011). For plant height additive gene action reported by Shrinivas et al. (2000), Ajay kumar et al. (2001), Chauhan et al. (2003) and Patel (2004). For biological yield additive gene effect reported by Basavarajaiah et al. (2000) and Bhadru (2008). For remaining traits non-additive type of gene action was predominant. and its components have also been reported by Chaudhari et al. (1980), Venkateswarlu and Singh (1982), Omanga (1984), Saxena et al. (1989), Sarode et al. (2009), Vaghela et al. (2009) and Pandey Praveen et al. (2014). Preponderance of non-additive genetic variance suggested the relevance of heterosis breeding in pigeonpea. Highly significant gca effects for seed yield among parents exhibited by CMS GT 603 A and GTR 95 (Table 2). Which had also siginificant gca effects for its contributing traits viz. number of pods per plant, number of branches per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod length, biological yield and leaf area. Parents, CMS GT 33 A, CMS GT 288 A, GTR 52 and GTR 8 for earliness, CMS GT 33 A, GTR 8, CMS GT 301 A and CMS GT 288 A for dwarfness, CMS GT 33 A, GTR 18 and CMS GT 301 for protein content found good general combiners for respective traits. Among thirty hybrids three hybrids each for days to flowering, days to maturity, pod length and for plant height, four hybrids for number of branches per plant, each eight hybrids for number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod, two hybrids for 100-seed weight, five hybrids for harvest index and each seven hybrids for total protein content and biological yield manifested significant and desirable sca effects. Results revealed that the hybrids with high sca effects for seed yield per plant were also associated with high and desirable sca effects for most of the important yield attributing traits. The best four hybrids with high significant positive sca effects for seed yield per plant were CMS GT 33 X GTR 18 (29.31), CMS GT 302 A X GTR 8 (25.27), CMS GT 601 A X GTR 52 (21.35) and CMS GT 288 A X GTR 95 (20.89). These hybrids had also high significant positive sca effects for its contributing traits viz. number of pods per plant, number of branches per plant, biological yield and leaf area were contributed toward seed yield. The crosses showing significant sca effects can be directly used for hybrid breeding programme (Table 3). These crosses may be exploited commercially after testing in wide range of environments.

 
 
 

Table 2 The estimates of general combining ability (gca) effects of the parents for various characters in pigeonpea

Note: *, ** Significant at 5 per cent and 1 per cent levels of significance, respectively

 

Table 3 The estimates of specific combining ability (sca) effects of the hybrids for various characters in pigeonpea
 
3 Conclusions
It was concluded that none of the parent was good general combiners for all the characters. Among parents, CMS GT 603 A (28.43) and GTR 95 (17.24) were good general combiner for seed yield and its contributing traits viz. pod length, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod length, biological yield and leaf area, CMS GT 33 A (0.48) and CMS GT 301 A (0.19) for protein content, CMS GT 33 A (-17.93), CMS GT 288 A (-9.03), GTR 52 (-1.40) and GTR 8 (-0.62) recorded for earliness. These parents can be improved further through intensive crossing programme and subsequent selection of transgressive segregants in desired direction. Hybrids CMS GT 33 A X GTR 18 (29.31), CMS GT 302 A X GTR 8 (25.27), CMS GT 601 A X GTR 52 (21.35) and CMS GT 288 A X GTR 95 (20.89) were the best for seed yield per plant. These crosses had also high sca values for its contributing traits viz. number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length, harvest index, biological yield and leaf area. These crosses involved poor x average, poor x poor and average x poor combining parents and better performance reflected involvement of interaction of dominant and epistasis type gene action for this trait. So, these crosses can be exploited through hybrid breeding programme.
 
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