Research Article

An Over Review of Micronutrients on Growth, Yield and Quality of Citrus  

V. Suresh , M. Ammaan , R.P. Jagadeeshkanth
1 Assistant Professor (Hort.), RVS Padmavathy College of Horticulture, Sempatti, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Assistant Professor (Hort.), Imayam Institute of Agriculture and Technology, Thuraiyur, Tamil Nadu, India
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Horticulture, 2018, Vol. 8, No. 14   doi: 10.5376/ijh.2018.08.0014
Received: 10 Apr., 2018    Accepted: 10 May, 2018    Published: 29 Jun., 2018
© 2018 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Suresh V., Ammaan M., and Jagadeeshkanth R.P., 2018, An over review of micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of Citrus, International Journal of Horticulture, 8(14): 163-170 (doi: 10.5376/ijh.2018.08.0014)

 

Abstract

Citrus is primarily valued for the fruit, which is either used alone as fresh fruit, processed into juice or added to dishes and beverages. In this area farmer’s obtained low yield due to micronutrient deficiency next to pest and disease. In this hill ecosystem, deficiency of micronutrient causes adverse effects on fruit orchard, making it unfit for consumption. Use of micronutrient reduces the deficiency thus improving plant growth and yield. The foliar application of micronutrients increases the photosynthetic compounds inside the plant tissue which ultimately reduces the leaf drop and give strength for their persistency compare to soil application. It needs 17 essential elements for growth and development. Micronutrient deficiencies often tend to limit the productivity in this crop. Use of micronutrient reduces the deficiency thus improving plant growth and yield. The foliar application of micronutrients increases the photosynthetic compounds inside the plant tissue which ultimately reduces the leaf drop and give strength for their persistency compare to soil application. Deficiency of' micronutrients occur at various stages of growth and development of citrus plants. Micronutrients are required in very small quantities, yet they are very effective in regulating plant growth.

Keywords
Review; Micronutrients; Growth and quality; Citrus

1 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Tree Height and Spread of Citrus Tree

Nanaya et al. (1985) observed that foliar application of magnesium sulphate twice annually (April-May and September-October) at 0.5 per cent to mandarin trees on Poncirus trifoliate root stock increased the growth parameters (height, plant spread and stem girth) significantly.

 

In mandarin, Haque et al. (2000) observed that the foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.5%) and phosphoric acid (0.1%) either single or in combination with other nutrients (Mg and Cu) observed an effective increase in the plant height and plant spread. However, the significant highest increase in plant height and spread was found with combined application of Mg, Cu and Zn.

 

This was suggested the vegetative growth of both species (C. volkameriana and Citrus reticulata Blanco.) increased significantly with 1% urea and 50 ppm GA singly or in combination. Zinc sulphate alone did not significantly affect the growth parameters except plant height. The combined application of 1% urea, 50 ppm GA, and 0.2% zinc sulphate through foliar application resulted great influence on plant height (Gendiah and Hagagy,  2000).

 

In mandarin orange, Ram and Bose (2000) revealed that foliar application in combination of MgSO4 (2%) + CuSO4 (0.4%) + ZnSO4 (0.5%) recorded maximum plant height (43.76 cm) where as MgSO4 (2%) + CuSO4 (0.4%) + ZnSO4 (0.5%) + Boric acid (0.1%) recorded maximum plant spread (40.86 cm) in the direction of E-Wand N-S.

 

El-Saida (2001) noticed that Washington navel orange trees budded on sour orange rootstock, showing Fe, Zn and Mn deficiency symptoms, while received foliar nutrition of 400 ppm of Na, Fe EDTA, Na, Zn EDTA and Mn EDTA 3 times a year (at the beginning of flowering, after fruit set, and 4 weeks later) either solely or at different combinations, improved growth parameters (shoot percentage and shoot length of different growth flushes) and leaf chlorophyll content.

 

Ahmad et al. (2012) observed that foliar application of ZnSO4 (0.5%) and Boric acid (0.3%) at fruit set stage showed the significant increase of plant height and also increase the tree spread and stem girth in Feutrelly’s Early (Citrus reticulate Blanco).

 

In kinnow mandarin, Gurjar et al. (2015)  revealed that combined application of Boric acid (0.2%) + Zinc sulphate (0.5%) at fruit set and peach size stage of fruit through foliar spray exerted great influence on plant height, tree spread and shoot length.

 

1.1 Sweet orange

Babu et al. (2007) registered that foliar application of zinc sulphate (0.75%) increased the plant height over control in sweet orange.

 

In sweet orange, Yadav et al. (2007) studied the effect of three sprays (2nd week of May, last week of June and second week of August) of zinc sulphate 0.75% on sweet orange fruit trees in term of plant growth and fruit drop. Application of 0.75 per cent zinc sulphate (three sprays) resulted in better growth of plant height and spread.

 

1.2 Acid lime

Ingle (2002) revealed that combined application of ZnSO4 (0.5%) + FeSO4 (0.5%) two spray at one-month (Feb-march) observed maximum plant height and tree spread over the control in acid lime.

 

2 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Chlorophyll Content

In Orange, Pestana et al. (2002) reported that foliar treatments were applied to evaluate the recovery of iron chlorosis of orange trees (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. cv. ‘Valencia Late’) grown on a calcareous soil. The treatments were Fe (II) sulphate (500 mg Fe L-1), sulphuric acid (0.5 m M H2SO4), Fe (III)-chelate (Hampiron 654 GS, 120 mg Fe L-1) and distilled water as a control. Compared with the control, sprays of Fe (II) sulphate led to higher concentrations of chlorophyll, Fe and Zn in leaves and flowers at the end of the experimental period showed significant increase in chlorophyll content.

 

El-Saida (2001) revealed that Washington navel orange trees budded on sour orange rootstock, showing Fe, Zn and Mn deficiency symptoms, while received foliar nutrition of 400 ppm of Na, Fe EDTA, Na, Zn EDTA and Mn EDTA three times a year (at the beginning of flowering, after fruit set, and 4 weeks later) either solely or at different combinations, increased the leaf chlorophyll content.

 

In Kinnow mandarin, Aisha ilyas et al. (2015) observed that foliar application of micronutrient (Zn, Cu & B) significantly affected chlorophyll, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a/b content. The highest concentration was recorded in 0.3% Zn treated plants. In case of Cu values or gradually decreased with increasing its level. Boron treated plants showed different response, the maximum concentrations were recorded under 0.2% followed by 0.1% and 0.3% respectively.

 

3 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Fruit Weight

3.1 Mandarin

Ram and Bose (2000) reported that foliar application of MgSO4 (2%) has recorded maximum fruit weight (107.17 g/fruit) in mandarin orange.

 

Babu and Yadav (2005) suggested that maximum fruit weight (111.60 g/fruit) was recorded when ZnSO4 sprayed with 0.5% and the minimum fruit weight was observed in case of control in Khasi mandarin.

 

In Kinnow mandarin, Babu et al. (2007) reported that the maximum fruit weight (140 g/fruit) was recorded in treatment consisting of ZnSO4 (0.5%) + MnSO4 (0.5%) + MgSO4 (0.5%) over the control.

 

4 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Fruit Size

4.1 Citrus

Babu et al. (2007) noticed that fruit volume and fruit length were maximum in trees sprayed with magnesium, zinc and manganese and minimum in the control trees in Kinnow mandarin.

 

In Kinnow mandarin, Kachave and Bhosale (2007) observed that foliar application of plant growth regulators (NAA 200 ppm) and micronutrient spray of 1% registered the increase the fruit length and volume in Kagzi lime. Javaid et al. (2008) reported that increase in size of fruits (L/B-7.73/7.65) with foliar application of MnSO4 (60 g) + CuSO4 (60 g) + FeSO4 (60 g) + ZnSO4 (100 g).

 

Ahmad et al. (2012) result revealed that the combined application of 0.3% boric acid + 0.5% Zinc sulphate at fruit set stage significantly increased the fruit length in Feutrell’s Early fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco).

 

In Kinnow mandarin, Gurjar et al. (2015) noted that foliar application of 0.2% boric acid + 0.5% Zn at fruit set and peach size showed the increase in fruit volume, length and breadth of the fruit respectively.

 

5 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Seed Weight Per Fruit

Ahmed et al. (2012) studied that exogenous application of boron and zinc on the influence leaf nutrient status, tree growth and fruit quality of Feutrell’s Early (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The result showed that the application of 0.3% boric acid at fruit set stage increases the seed weight per fruit.

 

The Razzaq et al. (2013) studied the effect of foliar application of zinc influence on leaf mineral status, vegetative and reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality of Kinnow mandarin and found that seed weight fruit-1 was higher in the fruit harvested from trees treated with 0.8% zinc sulphate as compared to other treatments.

 

6 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Number of Seeds Per Fruit

Ahmed et al. (2012) studied that exogenous application of boron and zinc on the influence on leaf nutrient status, tree growth and fruit quality of Feutrell’s Early (Citrus reticulata Blanco). The result showed that the application of 0.3% boric acid at fruit set stage increases the number of seeds fruit-1.

 

Jagtap et al. (2013) observed that the application of plant growth regulators and micronutrient significantly increased the number of seeds fruit-1 in acid lime cv. Kagzi.

 

7 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Rind Thickness

Tariq et al. (2007) observed that foliar application of Mn alone was significantly reduced the percentage of peel thickness in Sweet orange.

 

In Kinnow mandarin, Javaid et al. (2008) reported that lowest rind thickness of fruits (0.43 mm) was recorded with foliar application of MnSO4 (60 g) + CuSO4 (60 g) + FeSO4 (60 g) + ZnSO4 (75g) respectively.

 

Razzaq et al. (2013) studied that foliar application of zinc influence on leaf mineral status, vegetative and reproductive growth, and yield and fruit quality of Kinnow mandarin. The result recorded that the application of boric acid at 0.4% increase the peel thickness compare to control in Kinnow mandrain.

 

Eman et al. (2007) revealed that foliar application of Zn + 20 ppm GA3 were significantly increase the rind thickness in Washington Novel orange compare to control.

 

8 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Pulp Weight 

In Mandarin orange, Ram and Bose (2000) observed that application of micronutrient Mg (2%) + Cu (0.4%) + Zn (0.5%) + B (0.1%) + Fe (0.25%) exhibited significant effect on the increase of pulp weight.

 

Ahmed et al. (2012) result revealed that the spray 0.3% of boric acid at fruit set stage showed increased pulp weight in Feutrell’s Early.

 

According to Razzaq et al. (2013) foliar application of zinc (0.6%) influence leaf mineral status, vegetative and reproductive growth, yield and fruit quality of Kinnow mandarin. The result showed that the application of zinc (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%) at different concentration increased pulp weight compare to control in Kinnow mandrain.

 

Nirmaljit et al. (2015) noticed that foliar spray of Ferrous sulphate @ 750 ppm exhibited significant effect on increase in the pulp weight % compare to control in Kinnow mandarin.

 

9 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Fruit Juice Content

In an investigation, effect of foliar spraying plant growth regulators NAA 200 ppm and micronutrient 0.5 % a mixture of Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu on Kagzi lime trees was studied. The result reported that the significant increase in the fruit juice % over all the treatment (Kachave and Bhosale, 2007).

 

Ahmed et al. (2012) conducted an experiment to investigate the influence of boric acid 0.3% and 0.5% zinc sulphate on Feutrell’s Early mandarin sprayed at fruit set stage and found that significantly increase in the Juice weight (37.4%) compare to control.

 

According to Dhinesh and Yadav (2005), foliar spray of zinc sulphate @ 0.5% significantly increased the fruit juice content (47.6%) in Khasi mandarin.

 

Aisha ilyas et al. (2015) studied the effect of micronutrient (Zn, Cu and B) on photosynthetic and fruit yield attributes of Citrus reticulata Blanco, Kinnow mandarin found that the treatment combination of ZnSO4 (0.3%) + CuSO4 (0.1%) + Borax (0.2%) significantly increased the fruit juice content in kinnow mandarin.

 

Razzaq et al. (2013) reported that foliar application of 0.8 % zinc sulphate exhibited 25.86 % higher juice weight percentage as compared to control in Kinnow mandarin.

 

10 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Fruit Set

10.1 Citrus

Hassan (1995) observed that micronutrients such as Zn (5 ppm) and Fe (5 ppm) sprayed twice per year alone or in combination on Washington orange increased fruit set and increased fruit yield as compared to control.

 

Wang-Gui Chang (1999) conducted that spraying with 0.2% borax + 0.2% magnesium sulphate + 0.1% zinc sulphate before flowering and again after flower drop were required to increase the fruit set in Jiaogan mandarin.

 

In sweet orange, Muhammad Sajid et al. (2010) reported that foliar application of Zn and B significantly influenced the days to flowering. The percentage of fruit set and fruit drop were not significantly affected by foliar spray of Zn and B alone or in combination.

 

Ashraf et al. (2012) reported that foliar application of Zn + K + SA [Zn (0.25 % Zn as ZnSO2.H2O solution), K (0.25% K as K2SO4 solution), and salicylic acid (10 µM)] is effective in reducing excessive kinnow fruit drop, therefore, foliar application of Zn + K + SA is recommended at the onset of flowering, fruit formation and at the stage of color initiation on fruit.

 

Khan et al. (2012) observed that the application of 0.3% boric acid + 0.5% zinc sulphate at fruit set stage effectively increase fruit set of Feutrell’s Early mandarin.

 

In Washington Noval orange, Heerendra et al. (2013) conducted that spraying zinc sulphate alone or in combination with calcium chelates, biozem and gibberellic acid increased the fruit set and reduced June and pre-harvest fruit drop.

 

In lemon cv. Assam, foliar sprays of chelated (Zn-EDTA) and non-chelated (zinc sulfate) at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%, number of fruits/tree, increased with increasing at 0.4% application. However, the most beneficial treatment was chelated zinc at 0.4%, which gave the highest number of flowers/plant and (289.33) and fruit set (78.17%) this was reported by Heerendra et al. (2013).

 

11 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Number of Fruits Per Tree

11.1 Citrus

Foliar application of combination of MgSO4 (2%) + CuSO4 (0.4%) + ZnSO4 (0.5%) + Boric acid (0.1%) + FeSO4 (0.25%) produced the more number of fruits (442/tree) in mandarin orange (Ram and Bose, 2000).

 

According to Javaid et al. (2008) highest number of fruits (1406 fruits/ tree) with foliar application of MnSO4 (60 g) + CuSO4 (60 g) + FeSO4 (60 g) + ZnSO4 (100 g) in Kinnow mandarin.

 

In Khasi mandarin, Babu and Yadav (2005) observed that highest number of fruits (124.6) when ZnSO4 sprayed with 0.5% which was followed by the magnesium sulphate.

 

In Mandarin orange, Dhinesh and Yadav (2005) noticed that maximum number of fruits (380 plant-1) was recorded with zinc and manganese, whereas minimum (335 plant-1) was recorded in control and the highest productivity was also recorded with zinc and manganese.

 

In Kinnow mandarin, Babu et al. (2007) observed that more number of fruits per tree (246) in treatment consists of ZnSO4 (0.5%) + MnSO4 (0.5%) over the control.

 

Dhinesh et al. (2007) result revealed that highest number of fruits per tree varied significantly and ranged from 126.25 to 246.00. The maximum number of fruit (246.00) was recorded from the trees sprayed with zinc and manganese whereas minimum (126.25) from control in Kinnow mandarin.

 

Ashraf et al. (2013) observed that the foliar application of 2, 4-D (10 mg/lit), salicylic acid (10 mg/lit), potassium (0.25%) and zinc (0.25%) significantly increase the number of fruits per plant and reducing the fruit drop.

 

Siddappa et al. (2014) suggested that the foliar application ZnSO4 (0.5%) significantly increase the number of fruits (519.67) compare to control in Kinnow mandarin.

 

In lemon cv. Assam, Heerendra et al. (2013) revealed that foliar sprays of chelated (Zn-EDTA) and non-chelated (zinc sulfate) at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%, number of fruits/tree, increased with increasing at 0.4% application. However, the most beneficial treatment was chelated zinc at 0.4%, which gave the highest number of flowers/plant and number of fruit per tree.

 

12 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Fruit Yield

12.1 Mandarin

Ram and Bose (2000) observed that foliar application of combination of MgSO4 (2%) + CuSO4 (0.4%) + ZnSO4 (0.5%) has recorded maximum average yield (47.41 kg plant-1) in mandarin orange.

 

Babu and Yadav (2005) reported that maximum fruit yield (13.9 kg tree-1) when ZnSO4 sprayed with 0.5% and the minimum fruit yield was observed in case of untreated control in Khasi mandarin.

 

According to Babu et al. (2007) studied that maximum fruits yield (34.07 kg tree-1) were recorded in treatment consists of ZnSO4 (0.5%) + MnSO4 (0.5%) over the control in Kinnow mandarin.

 

12.2 Sweet orange

Perveen and Rehman (2000) observed that foliar application of Zn to sweet orange trees increased the yield significantly as compared to trees not sprayed with Zn. The highest yield of 105.3 kg tree-1 and 49.79% increases over control was obtained in sweet orange.

 

In Sweet orange, Rahman and Haq (2006) observed that foliar application of Zn and Mn on sweet orange trees increased the yield significantly as compared to trees not sprayed with these nutrients. Zn and Mn alone exhibited a yield increase of 49.79% and 30.87% respectively.

 

Tariq et al. (2007) observed that foliar application of Zn and Mn were significantly increased the fruit yield of sweet orange. The maximum fruit yield of 123.3 kg per tree was obtained from the tree receiving Zn + Mn combination.

 

Sajid et al. (2010) noticed that maximum yield kg tree-1 was produced, when plants were treated with high concentration of Zn (0.5%) and low concentration of B (0.04%) in sweet orange cv. Blood orange.

 

Swietlik (2002) observed that foliar sprays of zinc are more effective, foliar- absorbed Zn is not easily translocated in plants. In citrus and apples, the occurrence of severe deficiency symptoms appears to be a prerequisite for tree responses. Zinc foliar sprays applied before anthesis may be most beneficial in terms of fruit yield in citrus.

 

13 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on TSS

13.1 Mandarin

In Khasi mandarin, Babu and Yadav (2005) reported that maximum TSS was recorded when ZnSO4 sprayed with 0.5% and the minimum was observed in case of untreated control.

 

Dinesh babu and Yadav (2005) observed that foliar spray of micronutrient for yield and quality improvement in Khasi mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.). Total soluble solids were maximum in the fruits sprayed with ZnSO4 @ 0.5% and minimum in control.

 

Babu et al. (2007) observed that total soluble solids (TSS) was higher in fruits from trees sprayed with magnesium, zinc and manganese and minimum in fruits from control trees.

 

According to Eman et al. (2007) noticed that zinc sulphate + GA3 had a significant effect on TSS content of the fruits. The fruit sprayed with (0.5%) zinc sulphate + 20 ppm GA3 had 12.0% TSS compared to control in Washington Navel orange trees.

 

Javaid et al. (2008) observed that highest TSS of fruits (12.30 %) with foliar application of MnSO4 (60 g) + CuSO4 (60 g) + FeSO4 (60 g) + ZnSO4 (100 g) in Kinnow mandarin.

 

14 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Acidity

Dinesh and Yadev (2005) observed the effect of foliar spray of micronutrient for yield and quality improvement in Khasi mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.) and found that foliar spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.5% reduced the acidity compare to control.

 

In Khasi mandarin, Dhinesh et al. (2005) reported that foliar spraying of MgSO4 (0.5%) + ZnSO4 (0.5%) + MnSO4 (0.5%) was recorded the highest and lowest acidity in control.

 

Nirmaljit et al. (2015) suggested that foliar spray of zinc sulphate reduced the acidity compare control in kinnow mandarin.

 

15 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Ascorbic Acid

15.1 Mandarin

Babu and Yadav (2005) reported that maximum ascorbic acid (31.24 mg/100 g) with foliar application of ZnSO4 (0.5%) in Khasi mandarin.

 

Dinesh babu and Yadav (2005) studied the effect of foliar spray of micronutrient for yield and quality improvement in Khasi mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.). The higher ascorbic acid noted in ZnSO4 @ 0.5% treated trees and lowest in control.

 

Babu et al. (2007) suggested that the highest ascorbic acid (37.50 mg /100 g of pulp) in treatment consists of ZnSO4 (0.5%) + MnSO4 (0.5%) + MgSO4 (0.5%) over the control in Kinnow mandarin.

 

In Feutrell’s Early mandarin, combined application of 0.3% boric acid + 0.5% zinc sulphate at pre- mature stage significantly enhanced the concentration of ascorbic acid in the fruit juice (Ahmad et al., 2012).

 

According to Razzaq et al. (2013) observed that tree sprayed with zinc sulphate had a significant effect on ascorbic acid content of the fruits. The fruit sprayed with (0.6%) zinc sulphate had 33.38% more ascorbic acid compared to control in Kinnow mandarin.

 

16 Effect of Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Sugar

In Khasi mandarin, Babu and Yadav (2005) reported that increased sugar content (7.2%) by spraying ZnSO4 as well as manganese (6.8%) to the trees.

 

Dinesh and Yadev (2005) observed the effect of foliar spray of micronutrient for yield and quality improvement in Khasi mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco.). The highest sugar content recorded in ZnSO4 @ 0.5% treated trees and lowest in control.

 

In Feutrell’s Early mandarin combined application of 0.3% boric acid + 0.5% zinc sulphate at pre-mature stage significantly enhanced the concentration of total sugar and non reducing sugar in the fruit juice (Ahmad et al., 2012) respectively.

 

According to Razzaq et al. (2013) in Kinnow mandarin foliar application of zinc sulphate (0.2%) increased the total and non-reducing sugar by 11.7% and 36.50% over control trees.

 

Siddapa et al. (2014) observed that the foliar spray of FeSO4 @ 0.5% increased the reducing sugar and total sugar in fruit juice in Kinnow mandarin.

 

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International Journal of Horticulture
• Volume 8
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