Research Report

Chemical Control of Wilt in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)  

Ajay Kumar Singh , Shashi Kamal
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jakhdhar, (GBPUA&T, Pantnagar) Rudraprayag, Uttarakhand, 246439, India
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jakhdhar, G.B.Pant Univ.of Agric. &Technology, Pantnagar, Rudraprayag, Uttarakhand-246439.
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Horticulture, 2012, Vol. 2, No. 2   doi: 10.5376/ijh.2012.02.0002
Received: 07 Dec., 2012    Accepted: 14 Dec., 2012    Published: 25 Dec., 2012
© 2012 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Ajay K.S. and Shashi K., 2012, Chemical Control of Wilt in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), International Journal of Horticulture, 2(2): 5-6 (doi: 10.5376/ijh.2012.02.0002)

Abstract

Tomato wilt is dread disease of vegetable in the warm humid subtropical and temperate regions in the world and thus causes heavy loss (10%~90%) in yield. The effective control of wilt can be done by seed treatment with Thiram 75 WDP before sowing followed by 10 minute dipping of seedlings roots in 0.3% solution of Carbendazim 50 WP before transplanting and plant roots drenched with Copper oxychloride 50 WP @ 0.3 % solution+0.01 % Streptomycin solution one month after transplanting.

Keywords
Tomato wilt; Chemical treatment; Thiram 75 WDP; Carbendazim 50 WP; Copper oxychloride 50 WP

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the most popular vegetable grown all over the world. Tomato crop is prone to many diseases. Wilt in tomato caused by bacterium Rolstonia solanacearum, fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium albo-atrum, is one of the most destructive disease of vegetables in the warm humid regions of subtropical and temperate regions of the world. Disease is characterized by yellowing of leaves, stunted growth of the plants, browning of roots, reduced root system, chocolate brown vascular tissue in the lower area of stem and wilting followed by death of the entire plants at later stage of the growth. The loss in yield varies between 10% to 90% depending on the stage of the plant growth at which section occurs and the environmental conditions (Singh, 2005; Kumar and Sood; 2002). Objectives of the experiments were to assess the effect of chemical treatments for control of tomato wilt.

1. Results and Analysis
1.1    Effects of chemical treatment on tomato wilt control
Per cent occurrence of wilt in tomato hybrid Naveen 2000+ were significantly reduced with seed treatment (T1) followed by 10 minute dipping of seedlings roots in 0.3% solution of Carbendazim 50 WP before transplanting (T2) and plant roots drenched with Copper oxychloride 50 WP @ 0.3% solution + 0.01% Streptomycine solution one month after transplanting (Table 1). Among all the treatments, it was observed that T3 treatments gave best result in controlling wilt occurrence followed by T2 and T1 treatments, respectively. These results were well supported by findings of Padamodaya and Reddy (1988) where seedlings of tomato treated with Pseudomonas fluorescence gave reduced wilt incidence.


Table 1 Effect of chemical treatment on tomato yield and wilt control


1.2 
Effect of chemical treatment on tomato yield
 Data presented in Table 1 and Figure 1, indicates that tomato yield with treatment T3, T2 and T1 gave significantly higher yield as compare to the crop grown in plot (T4). The significantly higher yield were recorded with treatment T3 (191.2 q/ha) followed by T2 (181.6 q/ha) and T1 (169.8 q/ha), respectively. Minimum tomato yield was observed with T4 (140.2 q/ha) in control condition where no chemicals were applied. Due to minimum disease incidence with treatment T3, there was highest yield recorded (191.2 q/ha). These results were in accordance with findings of Sumner et al (1978), Mc Carter et al (1976) and Jenkins et al (1986).


Figure 1 Effect of chemical treatment on tomato yield and wilt control


The effective control of wilt can be done by seed treatment with Thiram 75 WDP before sowing followed by 10 minute dipping of seedlings roots in 0.3 % solution of Carbendazim 50 WP before transplanting and plant roots drenched with Copper oxychloride 50 WP @ 0.3% solution + 0.01% Streptomycine solution one month after transplanting.

2 Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted during Kharif season of year 2009-2010 at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jakhdhar (GBPUA&T, Pantnagar), Rudraprayag. KVK is situated at mid hills of Uttarakhand with latitude of 300 N, longitude 700 E and altitude 1718 meter MSL. Treatments were arranged as follows - seeds of tomato hybrid Naveen 2000+ were treated with Thiram 75 WDP @ 2 mg/kg (T1), T1+ seedlings root were dipped in 0.3 % solution of Carbendazim 50 WP for 10 minute before transplanting (T2), T2+ drenching of plant roots with 0.3 % solution of Copper oxychloride 50 WP and 0.01 % solution of Streptomycine after one month of transplanting (T3). No control measures were taken in T4 (control). The Crop of tomato was planted in randomized block design (RBD). The plot size was (5×4) m2 with five replications of each treatment. The crop was grown as per recommended agronomic practices. Data on wilted plants were recorded from date of disease appearance till crop maturity.  
The decrease in disease incidence and increase in crop yield due to treatments over the control were calculated using following formulae: Per cent disease decrease over control: Decrease in disease due to treatments (%)= (Disease incidence in control – Disease incidence in treatments)/Disease incidence in control×100; Per cent yield increase over control: Yield increase due to treatments (%) = (Yield in treatments – Yield in control)/Yield in control×100.
Author’s contributions
Ajay Kumar Singh, ES participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis; Shashi Kamal, FG conceived of the study, and participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript
Acknowledgement
The authors are grateful to the Director Extension Education,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar for rendering facility and fund to conduct this experiment.
References
Jenkins S.F., and Averre C.W., 1986, Problems and progress in integrated control of southern blight of vegetables, Plant Disease, 70: 614-619
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PD-70-614

Kumar P., and Sood A.K., 2002, Control of bacterial wilt of tomato with VAM and bacterial antagonists, Indian Phytopatholog., 55: 513

Mc. Carter S.M., Jaworski C.A., Johnson A.W., and Williamson R.E.,1976, Efficacy of soil fumigants and methods of application for controlling southern blight of tomatoes grown in transparents, Phytopathology, 66: 910-913
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-66-910

Padmodaya B., and Reddy H.R., 1988, Screening of antagonists against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causing seedlings disease and wilt in tomato, Journal of mycology and plant pathology, 28: 339

Singh R.S., 2005, Plant diseases, Eighth Edition, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.Pvt Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 78
 
Sumner D.R., Johnson A.W., Jaworski C.A., and Chlafant R.B., 1978, Influence of film mulches and soil pesticides on root disease and population of soil borne fungi in vegetables, Plant Soil, 49: 267-283
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02149736
International Journal of Horticulture
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