Research Report

Physiological and Biochemical Evaluation of Guava Papaya Mixed Fruit Toffee  

Harnam Mewada1 , P.K. Jain1 , Swati Barche2
1.Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur, (JNKVV) Madhya Pradesh, India
2.College of Agriculture, Ganj-Basoda, (JNKVV), Jabalpur, India
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Horticulture, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 3   doi: 10.5376/ijh.2013.03.0003
Received: 08 Jan., 2013    Accepted: 15 Jan., 2013    Published: 22 Jan., 2013
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Harnam M., Jain P.K.,  and Swati B., 2013, Physiological and Biochemical Evaluation of Guava Papaya Mixed Fruit Toffee, International Journal of Horticulture, 3(3): 11-15 (doi: 10.5376/ijh.2013.03.0003)


The present investigation was carried out in preservation laboratory, Dept. of Horticulture, JNKVV, Jabalpur. during 2008-2009. The main objective of the investigation was to standardize the ratio of the guava and papaya pulp for better mixed fruit toffee. The various parameters of quality and over all acceptability were found in the treatment combination of 40% guava and 60% papaya along with 300 g sugar, 50 g milk powder and 120 g butter.

Guava; Papaya-physiological traits; Quality parameters; Quava-papaya pulp; Mixed fruit toffee

Guava and papaya are an important fruits of tropical and subtropical countries of the world. Both the fruits are available in plenty during winter season. Unfortunately, papaya has not fetches higher income as its odor is not highly appealing which limits its commercial exploitation both at consumer as well as processing level. But, guava emits a sweet aroma which is pleasant and refreshing acidic in flavor. Therefore, the blending of both papaya and guava product could be an economic proposition to utilize them profitably. There is a good possibility of enhancing the flavor and acceptability of papaya product by diversification i.e. by using blending technology Kalra et al (1991). As the guava fruits have soft pulp to melting while flavor are very pleasant with excellent quality can be mixed with the pulp of papaya fruit having blood red color, good taste, to give a quality products after blending. This shows the pulp compatibility and suitability for blending and making mixed fruit toffee product not only chemical but physical characters too. The mixed fruit toffee of these fruits has high nutritive value, good taste, appearance, and liking for the children, women and others. Thus the preparation of guava and papaya pulp with simple technology and its utilization in the form of mixed fruit toffee have great scope. Keeping in view the above facts he present investigation was conducted to evaluate the guava papaya mixed fruit toffee for various parameters.

Results and Discussions

The experiment results presented in Table 1 and depicted in Figure 1 revealed detail on sensory (physiological) parameters of the mixed fruit toffee product with various treatment combinations at different days of storage period. The treatment combinations were found significant with color, flavor, texture, taste and overall acceptability. Treatment T9 was found superior with better color and it was recorded 9.17, 8.83, 8.69 and 8.32 followed by treatment T10 (9.15, 8.78, 8.69 and 8.31) at 0, 30 days, 60 days and 90 days of storage period respectively which were statistically at par with each other. These findings were supported by Hamanan et al (1980), Ahmad et al (2000),  Jain and Asati (2004). The response of different treatments on flavor, texture and taste differed significantly. Higher rating of flavor was recorded in T9 as 8.81, 8.09, 8.06 and 7.91 during all the storage period of 0, 30 days, 60 days and 90 days respectively. Whereas, lower value of above parameters were recorded with treatment T16 as 5.52, 5.32, 5.25 and 5.19 the findings were in conformity with Sethi and Maini (1991). Treatment T9 was recorded maximum rating on texture (6.94, 6.89, 6.82 and 6.78) at 0, 30 days, 60 days and 90 days of storage respectively while Treatment T10 was noted the minimum rating of texture 3.96, 3.93, 3.90 and 3.81 at all storage period respectively. This result was in close approximation to that of Parmar (2008). The maximum mean score for taste valued 7.27, 7.15, 7.09 and 7.07 was noted in treatment T9 while minimum rating valued 4.80, 4.63, 4.20 and 4.15 was observed in treatment T16 at 0, 30 days, 60 days and 90 days of storage respectively. The similar finding was in accordance with the findings of the Parmar (2008).The highest rating on overall acceptability was 7.61, 7.54, 7.44 and 7.32 with Treatment T9 while minimum was recorded as 5.40, 5.33, 5.29 and 5.20 at all storage period respectively in treatment T16. Overall acceptability is high in T9 as the color of the product from guava-papaya pulp brighter than reddish white that of pure guava leather as they have taken plain guava pulp as control. He also reported that blending had significant effect on the composition of finished product. A similar result was confirmed by the findings of Ramesh Kumar and Llyas (2005).

Table 1 Response of treatments on physiological traits on mixed fruit toffee

Figure 1 Response of the treatments on physiological characters of mixed fruit toffee

The data related to qualitative significantly influenced by the ratio of fruit pulp and recipes as indicated in Table 2 and Figure 2. The maximum value of total soluble solids 57.50%, 62.4%, 65.50% and 70.50% was exhibited in treatment T4 at 0, 30 days, 60 days and 90days of storage period respectively. The total soluble solids content of fruits increases the taste and aroma of fruit, similar finding are in agreement with the Shrivastava and Shrivastava (1965). Treatment T13 recorded the maximum value of pH (6.95, 6.81, 5.44 and 5.40) at 0, 30 days, 60 days and 90 days of storage period respectively. These findings were supported by Kalra and Revanthi (1983) reported that slightly decrease in pH during 60 days storage of guava pulp. It was clear from the table that the acidity percent of mixed fruit toffee decreased continuously with the progress in storage from 0 days of storage to 60 days of storage. The highest retention of acidity 0.457% was observed in the treatment T1. The decrease in acidity might be due to formation of sulphuric acid during storage.

Table 2 Response of the treatments on quality traits of mixed fruit toffee


Figure 2 Response of the treatments on quality traits of mixed fruit toffee

The retention of ascorbic acid during storage was significantly higher in treatment T4. This might be due to the higher rate of respiration since acid is utilized to form the necessary respiratory substrate for catabolic process in mixed fruit toffees. Johnson and Toledo (1975) found reduction in ascorbic acid might be due to the presence of oxygen.

The study showed that the treatment 40% guava +60% papaya and 300 g sugar+50 g milk powder+120 g butter rated best for overall acceptability character while 80% guava +20% papaya with sugar 900 g gave higher T.S. S and acidity records.
Materials and Methods
A lab experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 at preservation laboratory, department of Horticulture, college of Agriculture, Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. The guava fruits of white fleshed cultivar Allahabad Safeda and papaya fruits of reddish pink fleshed cultivar of Coorg Honey Dew were harvested at the fully matured stage from Imaliya Farm, Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. Four different percentage of guava and papaya pulp (80%+20%, 60%+40%, 40%+60%, 20%+80%) and four levels of sugar (300 g, 500 g, 700 g, 900 g) were tried. Total sixteen treatment combinations were replicated four times in Factorial Experiment in Completely Randomized Design. Harvested fruits were selected for uniformity in firm, ripe and appearance the selected fruits were prepared for the preparation of pulp.
Flow sheet for the preparation of guava pulp: Selection of fruits (Ripe and firm)Washing and cutting into piecesMixing with water (1:0.2)Passing through pulper or boiling in water (30 minuite)Straining of pulp and cooling (30 minuite)Preparation for toffee
Flow sheet for the preparation of papaya pulp: Selection of fruits (Ripe fruits)Washing and peelingCutting into halves and seed removalPassing through pulper/crushing in mixer after boilingPrepared for making toffee
The freshly prepared guava and papaya pulp were used for the preparation of mixed fruit toffee as per their compatibility with each other. As per recipe of mixed fruit toffee, contains mixed fruit pulp 1.0 kg, skim milkpowder 50 g, fat 120 g were taken. Except milk powder, all other ingredients are mixed very well and the mass is cooked up to 80o Brix. Milk powder is first dissolve in little quantity of water and made a thick paste and mixed in above mass and cooked again upto 82 o~84o Brix. The cooked mass was transferred in stainless steel which was already smeared with fat and the product is spread into a thin sheet of 1 cm to 2 cm thickness. This is allowed to cool and set for two to three hours. Then the solid sheet is cut into cubes of different shapes with a stainless steel knife and wrapped in colored butter paper. The observations on physiological characters and qualitative characters were estimated and analyzed statistically.
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