A Letter

Effect of Planting Dates on Growth and Yield on Garlic (Allium sativum)  

Swati Barche1 , K.S. Kirad2 , A.K. Shrivastav3
1.Dept. of Horticulture, College of Agric.GanjBasoda , JNKVV M.P. India
2.DFW&AD, Govt. Of of M.P., India
3.Dept. of Agrometeorology, College of Agric. Tikamgarh, JNKVV M.P. India
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Horticulture, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 4   doi: 10.5376/ijh.2013.03.0004
Received: 08 Jan., 2013    Accepted: 15 Jan., 2013    Published: 23 Jan., 2013
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Swati B., Kirad K.S., and Shrivastav A.K., 2013, Effect of Planting Dates on Growth and Yield on Garlic (Allium sativum), International Journal of Horticulture, 3(4): 16-18 (doi: 10.5376/ijh.2013.03.0004)

Abstract

An experiment was conducted to study of of garlic in different dates of planting at the Research Farm of College of Agriculture, Tikamgarh, Jawaharlel Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya Jabalpur M.P., India during the period from October 2008 to 2011. The objective of the work was to find out the different dates of planting on the yield of garlic. There were three planting time viz. October-30,November-15th and November 30 The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with nine replications. With the delay in planting time from Oct 30 yield was reduced in later plantings.

Keywords
Garlic (Allium sativum L.); Date of planting; Growth; Yield

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an important aromatic herbaceous plant belonging to family Alliaceae and one of the most important spice crop grown in the Mediterranean zone of the central part of the country. Crop is exposed to a great seasonal fluctuation of temperature and photoperiod (day length), both having a strong influence on the growth and development of garlic (Pooler and simmon, 1993). The performance of garlic largely depends on the time of planting as the vegetative growth is encouraged under short day and cool temperature. While long day and high temperature is favorable for better bulb development (Subrata et al., 2010). The main phonological stages in the garlic are number of days from planting to emergence, emergence to bulb formation, clove sprouting, leafing, bulb initiation and maturation. Linear relationship has been found between the number of leaves and thermal time above 0℃ under field conditions.

Results and Discussions
Planting dates significantly influenced the various growth and development traits of garlic (Table 1; Figure 1). Plant girth was significantly influenced by different dates of planting in different years. Increase in plant girth was observed with early planting in three years. The beneficial influence on plant girth due to early planting has been reported by Qaryouts & Kasarawi (1995). The number of green leaves per plant and leaf area found significantly maximum with early planting while late planting decreased the quantity of green leaves. This is possibly due to the attained higher vegetative growth, as a result the plants gave maximum number of leaves. Similar results were supported by Das et al (1985) and Rahim et al (1984). The response of different planting dates in different years on root length was very distinct. Early planting continuously increased the root length while late planting decreased the root length. The length and girth of bulb was recorded maximum in three years with the first planting. Rahman and talukdar (Rahman and Talukda, 1986) also observed the same results. Early planting also increased significantly the weight of bulb and yield. Highest bulb weight may be due to receive of sufficient cool and dry weather which possibly increased the vegetative growth and yield of bulb.


Table 1 Response of different dates of planting on growth, development & Yield of garlic

 


Figure 1 Response of different dates of planting on growth, development & Yield of garlic


Early planting gave higher yield due to the large size production of bulb. Delay planting reduced significantly the number of cloves and clove size. It may be due to the fact that plant did not received a long cool growing period which was essential for the development of the bulb as stated by Rahim (1988).
On the basis of the above discussion we can conclude that the early planting of garlic (in the month of October) increased the yield potential.

Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted at Research Farm, College of Agricultre, Tikamgarh during, 2008-2009, 2009-2010, 2010-2011 on sandy clay loam soil. Local germplasm procured from Tikamgarh region of Madhya Pradesh and planted cloves about two inch deep at 15 cm apart in row and row to row distance was 20 cm. Urea (Nitrogen source) was applied as top dressing in two equal splits at 30 and 45 days after planting. Single super phosphate (P-source) was applied as basal dressing during land preparation. Muriate of potash (K-source) was applied in three split at land preparation, 30 and 45 days after planting. And plant protection measures were adopted to ensure normal crop growth. Plants were irrigated as necessary and weeds were controlled by hand. The experiment was comprised with three planting dates (October 30, November 15, and November 30). The experiment adopted a Randomized Block Design which had nine replications. Various phonological observations were carried out on individual plant weekly as number of days from planting to emergence, emergence to bulb formation and bulb formation to bulb harvesting. Besides these, various characters like plant height, plant girth, total number of leaves per plant, leaf area, root length, weight of bulb, length of bulb, girth of bulb, number of cloves, length of cloves, girth of cloves and yield were noted. All the traits were analyzed statistically with the following the method described by Panse and Sukhatme (1989).
References
Das A.K., Sadhu M.K., Som M.G., and Bose T.K., 1985, Response to varying level on N, P and K on growth and yield of multiple clove garlic (Allium sativum) Indian Agric., 29: 183-89
Panse V.G., and Sukhatme P.V., 1989, Statistical methods for agricultural workers, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, pp.157-64
Pooler M.R., and Simon P.W., 1993, Garlic flowering in response to clone, photoperiod, growth temperature, and cold storage, Hortscience, 28: 1085-1086
Qaryouti M.M., and Kasrawi M.A., 1995, Storage temperature of seed bulbs and planting dates influence on garlic, Emergence, vegetative growth, bulbing and maturity. Adv. Hort. Sci., 9: 12-18
Rahim M.A., 1988, Control of growth and bulbing of garlic (Allium sativum L.), Ph.D. Thesis, University of London
Rahim M.A., Siddique M.A., and Hossain M.M., 1984, Effect of time of planting, mother bulb size and plant density on the yield of garlic, Bangladesh J. Agric. Res., 9: 112-11
Rahman A.K.M., and Talukda M.R., 1986, Influence of date of planting and plant spacing on growth and yield of garlic, Bangladesh J. Agric., 11:19-26
Subrata chand., Chattopadhyay P.K. and Hassan M.A., 2010, Dynamics of growth and yield of garlic in variable planting time and applied nutrient, Indian J. Horticulture, 67(3): 348-352
International Journal of Horticulture
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