Cayenne Pepper, Sweet Pepper and Long-cayenne Pepper Oil Extracted with Different Solvents as Fumigant Entomocide against Sitophilus zeamais Infestation  

Mercy Olayinka Oni
Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704 Akure, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Horticulture, 2014, Vol. 4, No. 9   doi: 10.5376/ijh.2014.04.0009
Received: 08 Apr., 2014    Accepted: 15 Apr., 2014    Published: 22 Apr., 2014
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Oni, 2014, Cayenne Pepper, Sweet Pepper and Long-cayenne Pepper Oil Extracted with Different Solvents as Fumigant Entomocide against Sitophilus zeamais Infestation, International Journal of Horticulture, 2014, Vol.4, No.9 44-49 (doi: 10.5376/ijh.2014.04.0009)

Abstract

N-hexane, ethanol and acetone extracts of cayenne pepper, sweet pepper and long cayenne pepper were used as fumigant under laboratory at ambient temperature of (28±2)˚C and (75±5)% relative humidity against infestation of Sitophilus zeamais on stored maize. The fumigant toxicity of the extracts were tested at dosage of 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml, 2.0 ml, 5.0 ml and 10.0 ml and their effect was observed on the adult mortality and emergence as well as the ability of the insects to cause seed damage and weight loss. Regardless of the solvent used for the extraction of the peppers, cayenne pepper extract significantly effect high weevil mortality than other extracts. The n-hexane extract of this pepper was the only extract that achieved 100% mortality even at lowest dosage (0.5 ml) and it’s effect was significantly (p<0.05) different from other extracts. None of the extract was able to prevent adult emergence, seed damage and seed weight loss; nevertheless, their effect was significantly different from the controls. The ability of cultivars of Capsicum spp. against S. zeamais was rated as cayenne pepper>long cayenne pepper>sweet pepper while they were rated based on the solvent used for their extraction as n-hexane extract>ethanol extract>acetone extract. Therefore, the n-hexane extract of the three peppers could be introduced into pest management techniques since Capsicum spp. used showed high insecticidal effect and they were medicinal in nature. Nevertheless, n-hexane extract of cayenne pepper was recommended as fumigant for effective control of S. zeamais in storage.

Keywords
Capsicum spp. Sitophilus zeamais; Adult emergence; Seed weight loss; Seed damage
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