trafik ceza easy agario agario games agario agario unblocked agario modded agarioprivate Lethal and Parasitism Effects of Fipronil on Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) | Khan | International Journal of Horticulture

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Lethal and Parasitism Effects of Fipronil on Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)  

Muhammad Ashraf  Khan , Adnan  Khan
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Horticulture, 2015, Vol. 5, No. 16   doi: 10.5376/ijh.2015.05.0016
Received: 29 Aug., 2015    Accepted: 10 Sep., 2015    Published: 14 Dec., 2015
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Khan M.A., and Khan A., 2015, Lethal and parasitism effects of fipronil on Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) International Journal of Horticulture, 2015, Vol.5, No.15 1-6 (doi: 10.5376/ijh.2015.05.0016)

Abstract

The effects of lower doses including 0.4x, 0.2x, 0.08x, 0.04x, and 0.02x field recommended dose (x) of insecticide fipronil on the emergence of Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) from the  treated larval, and pupal stage of parasitoid within the host eggs of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier , and parasitism of the females T. chilonis were assessed under laboratory conditions. Both 0.4x and 0.2x doses of fipronil led to complete failure of emergence, while the remaining three doses demonstrated ≤ 25.61% emergence in the larval treatment. However, pupal treatment indicated comparatively less toxicity to the parasitoids, i.e., the 0.4x dose showed 3.40%, while both 0.2x and 0.08% doses revealed emergence 29.05, and 39.65%, respectively. Both the lower most doses including 0.04x and 0.02x showed emergence 61.81 and 73.51%, respectively. Fipronil also affected parasitism of the previously treated host eggs of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier, and led to increase in parasitism capacity when dose shifted from high rate toward lower rate: all the used doses demonstrated mean parasitism ranging from 5 to 10.7 except 0.4x dose.

Keywords
Fipronil; Treatment; Parasitism; Emergence; Sitotroga cerealella
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