Studies on the Impact of Water Deficit on Plant Height, Relative Water Content, Total Chlorophyll, Osmotic Potential and Yield of Banana (Musa spp.,) Cultivars and Hybrids  

K. Krishna Surendar1 , D. Durga Devi1 , I. Ravi2 , P. Jeyakumar1 , S. Ramesh Kumar4 , K. Velayudham3
1. Department of Crop Physiology, TNAU, Coimbatore-641 003, India
2. National Research Centre for Banana (ICAR), Thiruchirapalli, India
3. Department of Farm Management, TNAU, Coimbatore-641 003, India
4. Department of Horticulture, VIA, Pollachi-642 103, India
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Horticulture, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 11   doi: 10.5376/ijh.2013.03.0011
Received: 22 Mar., 2013    Accepted: 26 Mar., 2013    Published: 29 Mar., 2013
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Surendar, 2013, Studies on the Impact of Water Deficit on Plant Height, Relative Water Content, Total Chlorophyll, Osmotic Potential and Yield of Banana (Musa spp.,) Cultivars and Hybrids, International Journal of Horticulture, 2013, Vol.3, No.1152-60 (doi:10.5376/ijh.2013.03.0011)

Abstract

Experiment were undertaken to screen the banana cultivars and hybrids for water stress tolerance and to elucidate information on morphological, physiological and yield characteristics mechanism of banana cultivars and hybrids. Stress was imposed at different critical stages viz., 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th month after planting. The stress was given by scheduling irrigation at the 50 per cent available soil moisture (ASM) characteristic during critical stages. The soil moisture content was analyzed by using pressure plate membrane apparatus. In control plots, the irrigation was given at the ASM of 80% with the soil water potential of around -6 bars and in the case of stressed plots; the irrigation was given when an ASM reached 50% with the soil water potential of -14 bars. In stressed plots, 50% ASM was reached around 30 days. In this present study conducted with twelve cultivars and hybrids with three replications. The data were analyzed by using split plot design. The morphological characters of plant height were significantly enhanced by control when compared to stress-treated plants and physiological characters like RWC, total chlorophyll content and osmotic potential can be considered good indicators of leaf water status in banana and can therefore be used for irrigation scheduling. Among the twelve cultivars and hybrids, Karpuravalli, Karpuravalli×Pisang Jajee, Saba, and Sannachenkathali was identified as tolerant to water stress and showed lesser reduction in the range of 3 to 14 per cent in morphological characters and 8%~10% over control in physiological characters leads to maintained its superiority over control and get higher bunch yield; whereas, Matti, Pisang Jajee×Matti, Matti×Anaikomban and Anaikomban×Pisang Jajee were notified as sensitive cultivars and hybrids with mean reduction of 22% in morphological and physiological characters than control due to irrigation at 50 ASM.

Keywords
Water deficit; Morphological; Physiological characters; Yield
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