Estimation of Genetic Parameters among Seed Cotton Yield and its Attributing Characters in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Yanal ahmad Alkuddsi1 , M.R. Gururaja Rao1 , S.S. Patil1 , Mukund Joshi2 , T.H. Gowda3
1 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
3 Agricultural Research Station, Bavikere, Therikere, Karnataka, India
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Molecular Evolution and Biodiversity, 2013, Vol. 3, No. 5   doi: 10.5376/ijmeb.2013.03.0005
Received: 06 Jul., 2013    Accepted: 30 Jul., 2013    Published: 06 Dec., 2013
© 2013 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Alkuddsi et al., 2013, Estimation of Genetic Parameters among Seed Cotton Yield and its Attributing Characters in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), International Journal of Molecular Evolution and Biodiversity Vol.3, No.5, 24-32 (doi: 10.5376/ijmeb.2013.03.0005)

Abstract

The success of a good breeding programme usually depends upon the quantum of genetic variability present in the breeding materials. Thus, knowledge on genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in tetraploid cotton is very essential for a breeder to choose good parents and to decide the correct breeding methodology for crop improvement. The experiment was carried out during kharif 2008 in cotton (G. hirsutum L.) to determine variability, heritability and gentic advance for seed cotton yield and its components. Fourty eight hybrids produced through Line x Tester mating design using 6 hirsutum non Bt lines (RAH 318 (L1), RAH 243 (L2), RAH 128 (L3), RAH 146 (L4), RAH 97 (L5) and RAH 124 (L6)) and 8 hirsutum non Bt testers ( SC 14 (T1), SC 18 (T2), SC 7 (T3), SC 68 (T4), RGR 32 (T5), RGR 24 (T6), RGR 58 (T7) and RGR 37 (T8)) to generate information on genetic parameters in respect of seed cotton yield and yield attributing characters (days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of bolls per plant, number of sympodia per plant, number of mnopodia per plant, mean boll weight, ginning outturn, seed index, and lint index). The 48 F1 hybrids were sown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Bavikere, UAS, Bangalore. The mean performance of 48 hybrids used in the present study indicated that the hybrid RAH 97 x SC18 was superior for 4 characters viz., plant height, mean boll weight, seed cotton yield per plant and seed index, while the hybrid RAH 146 x RGR37 was superior in respect of 2 characters, plant height and seed cotton yield per plant. The analysis of variance among 48 hybrids and checks tested in 2 replications indicated that mean sum of squares for hybrids was highly significant for all the characters except number of monopodia per plant, mean boll weight and seed index indicating presence of significant differences among the hybrids evaluated in respect of these traits. The mean sum of squares for hybrids vs checks was highly significant for plant height number of sympodia per plant, number of bolls per plant, seed cotton yield per plant and ginning outturn revealing superiority of hybrids over checks and presence of heterosis in respect of these traits. High genotypic co-efficient of variability were obtained for seed cotton yield (16.69) and number of bolls per plant (14.15), while low for days to 50% flowering (1.15) and number of monopodia per plant (2.84). However, high phenotypic co-efficient of variability were obtained for seed cotton yield (25.24) and number of bolls per plant (26.54) and low for days to 50% flowering (3.15) and ginning outturn (11.13). Plant height (6.98), number of bolls per plant (3.62), seed cotton yield (2.58) and ginning outturn (1.83), showed high magnitude of genetic advance, whereas, number of bolls per plant (15.54) and seed cotton yield (22.74) exhibited high genetic advance expressed as a percentage of the mean.  

Keywords
Variability; Heritability; Genetic advance; Gossypium hirsutum L.

Cotton is one of the most important commercial crops of India cultivated mainly for its fiber and other by products. Cotton, through cloth, has influenced the culture and civilizations. In the process of forming clothes and garments, it provides livelihood and employment to workers engaged in cloth making, designers, traders and the like. Cotton is one of the few crops which are accessible to development of genotypes as varieties and at the same time amenable for commercial exploitation of heterosis. Development of several hybrids during the last decade has contributed to a quantum jump in cotton productivity.

Hybrids have occupied nearly 90% area of cotton cultivated in India. There is a constant need to develop more potential hybrids and adopt noval approaches for improving hybrid performance. In cross pollinated crops like maize heterotic populations are developed and exploited through population improvement schemes meant for improving combining ability. Such programmes are integral part of hybrid breeding programme and these populations are shared among breeders and used further to obtain more potential hybrids. Studies have shown that even in cotton it is possible to adopt these concepts with suitable modifications in the procedure to suit the mating system of self pollinated crops (Patil and Patil 2003 and Patil et al 2007).
Generally, the magnitude of heritability is influenced by variability between populations, the extent to which a particular character is affected by prevailing environmental conditions of that experiment. Because of this limitation, some workers questioned the wisdom of estimating heritability. However, it can be argued that if a number of estimates for a certain character were made under different environments, a general idea could be formulated about range and magnitude of heritability for that character. Such general knowledge would be useful in indicating the ease or difficulty in attaining effective selection on the basis of phenotypic performance.
Heritability in itself provides no indication about the genetic progress that would result from selection. However, at a fixed selection pressure, the amount of advance varies with magnitude of heritability. Genetic advance in a population cannot be predicted from heritability alone, the genetic gain for specific selection pressure has to be worked out. Many investigations had been made on heritability for seed cotton yield and other traits. Basbag and Gencer (2004) indicated that seed cotton weight per boll and 100 seed weight had high heritability; bolls per plant had low heritability, while other characters had moderate heritability. The characters with high heritability suggested some possibilities in obtaining required genotypes by selection in early segregating generations (F2, F3); while selection for improvement was delayed due to low heritability for some characteristics. Basal and Turgut (2005) mentioned that moderate heritability estimates were observed for earliness ratio (0.53), fiber strength (0.50) seed cotton weight per boll (0.42) and lint % (0.40), however, bolls per plant and seed cotton weight per plant showed low heritability estimates, 0.33 and 0.22, respectively.
1 Results and Discussion
1.1 Analysis of Variance
The mean sum of squares for seed cotton yield and its attributing characters in 51 hybrids of cotton are presented in Table 1. Mean sum of squares for hybrids was highly significant for all the characters except number of monopodia per plant, mean boll weight and seed index indicating presence of significant differences among the hybrids evaluated in respect of these traits. The mean sum of squares for hybrids vs checks was highly significant for plant height number of sympodia per plant, number of bolls per plant, seed cotton yield per plant and ginning outturn revealing superiority of hybrids over checks and presence of heterosis in respect of these traits.


Table 1 Analysis of variance for seed cotton yield per plant and its attributing characters in checks and experimental hybrids of cotton [G. hirsutum L.]


1.2 Mean per se performance of hybrids
The mean per se performance of hybrids in respect of seed cotton yield and its attributing characters (Table 2) are briefly presented below.


Table 2 Mean per se performance of experimental hybrids and checks of cotton [G. hirsutum L.] in respect of seed cotton yield per plant and its attributing characters


1.3 Days to 50 per cent flowering
Among 51 hybrids evaluated, the hybrid RAH 97 x SC 68 took minimum number of days for 50 per cent flowering (66.50 days) followed by the hybrids RAH 318 x RGR 58,RAH 243 x RGR 32 and RAH128 x RGR 24 (67.00 days), RAH 318 x SC 68, RAH 243 x SC7 and BUNNY Bt (67.50 days), RAH128 x RGR 32 (68.00 days), RAH 318 x SC 7, RAH128 x SC 68 andRAH 97 x RGR 58 (68.50 days), RAH 243 x SC 14 and RAH 97 x RGR 24 (69.00 days) and RAH 318 x RGR 24,RCH2 Bt, RAH 243 x RGR 24,RAH146 x SC 7,RAH 97 x SC 7,RAH 97 x RGR 32,RAH 124 x SC 18 and RAH 124 x SC 7 (69.50 days) which are statistically on par with one another. Contrary to this, the hybrid RAH128 x SC 14 took maximum number of days (72.50) followed by the hybrids RAH 243 x SC 18,RAH128 x RGR 37, RAH146 x RGR 32, RAH146 x RGR 37, RAH 97 x SC 14,RAH 97 x SC 18 andRAH 124 x RGR 37 (72.00 days).
1.4 Plant height (cm)
The hybrid RAH146 x RGR 24 recorded maximum plant height (138.70 cm) followed by the hybridRAH128 x SC 14 (134.30 cm), while the hybrid RAH 318 x RGR 37 recorded minimum plant height of (84.30 cm).
1.5 Number of monopodia per plant
Among the 51 hybrids, the hybridRAH146 x RGR 37 recorded maximum number of monopodia per plant (2.50) followed by RAH 318 x RGR 58 and RAH 97 x RGR 32 (2.40), RAH 243 x SC 68 and RAH 243 x RGR 24 (2.30) and RAH 243 x SC 14 and RAH 124 x RGR 32 (2.25) which are on par with each other. On the other hand, the hybrid RAH 124 x SC 7 (1.20) recorded minimum number of monopodia per plant.
1.6 Number of sympodia per plant
Maximum number of sympodia per plant were observed in the hybrid RAH 124 x SC 18 (28.85) followed by the hybrid RAH128 x SC 14 (28.40) and RAH 243 x SC 68 (28.30) which are on par with one another. On the other hand, the hybrid RAH 318 x SC 18recorded lowest number of sympodia per plant (16.30) followed by RAH 318 x RGR 37 (17.50).
1.7 Number of bolls per plant
The hybrid RAH146 x RGR 58 produced maximum number of bolls per plant (33.80) followed by the hybrid RAH128 x SC 68 (33.30), RAH 318 x RGR 24 (33.20), RCH2 Bt (31.60) and RAH 243 x SC 7 (3140). On the other hand, the hybridRAH 97 x SC 68 produced minimum number of bolls per plant (13.10) followed by RAH 97 x RGR 24 (13.20).
1.8 Mean boll weight (g)
The hybrid RAH 97 x SC 7exhibited maximum mean boll weight (3.76 g) followed by the hybrid RAH 97 x RGR 32 (3.74 g), RAH 97 x SC 14 (3.58 g) and RAH 97 x SC 18 (3.52 g), while the hybrid RAHH 95had minimum mean boll weight (2.31g) followed by the hybrid RAH 243 x RGR 58 (2.48 g).
1.9 Seed cotton yield per plant (g/plant)
Maximum seed cotton yield per plant was observed in the hybrid RAH 97 x SC 18 (139.96 g), while the hybrid RAH 97 x SC 68 recorded minimum seed cotton yield per plant (36.93 g) followed by RAH 124 x RGR 24 (38.05 g).
1.10 Ginning percentage (%)
The hybrid RAH146 x RGR 32 possessed maximum ginning out turn (42.23 %) followed by the hybrid RAH 97 x RGR 24 (41.47 %), RAH146 x RGR 58 (41.37 %), RAH146 x SC 68 (40.38 %) and RAH 97 x RGR 32 (39.38 %), while the hybrid RAH 243 x SC 18 recorded minimum (28.74 %) ginning out turn.
1.11 Seed index (g)
Among all the hybrids, the hybrid RAH 97 x RGR 24 recorded maximum seed index (11.50 g) followed by the hybrids RAH 97 x SC 7,RAH 97 x RGR 58 and RAH 97 x RGR 37 (10.75 g) , RAH 97 x SC 18 (10.50 g), RAH128 x RGR 37, RAH 97 x SC 14,RAH 97 x RGR 32,RAH 124 x SC 18, andRAH 124 x SC 7 (10.25 g) and the hybrids RAH128 x RGR 24 and RAH146 x RGR 24 (10.00 g). On the other hand, the hybrids RAH 318 x RGR 37 andBUNNY Bt recorded minimum seed index (8.00 g) followed by RAH 243 x SC 14 and RAH128 x SC 7 (8.25 g).
1.12 Lint index (g)
The hybrid RAH 97 x RGR 24 had maximum lint index (8.15 g) followed by the hybrid RAH146 x RGR 32 (6.76 g), RAH146 x RGR 58 (6.70 g) which are on par with one another, while the hybrid RAH 243 x SC 18 recorded minimum lint index (3.53 g) followed by RAH 243 x SC 14 (3.90 g).
1.13 Variability, heritability and genetic advance
The results of estimated genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for yield and other characters for G. hirsutum are presented in Table 3.


Tabe 3 Characters means, variability, heritability and genetic advance for seed cotton yield and yield components in G.hirsutum hybrids

 
Genotypic variance (GV) and genotypic co-efficient of variation (GCV) were much less than phenotypic variance (PV) and phenotypic co-efficient of variation (PCV), respectively, for all the traits which indicated that all these traits were highly influenced by environment. High genotypic co-efficient of variability were obtained for seed cotton yield (16.69%) and number of bolls per plant (14.15%), while low for days to 50% flowering (1.15%) and number of monopodia per plant (2.84%). However, high phenotypic co-efficient of variability were obtained for number of bolls per plant (26.54%) and seed cotton yield (25.24%), but low for days to 50% flowering (3.15%) and ginning outturn (11.13%).
Heritability measures the relative amount of the heritable portion of variability and provides useful information for effective selection. In the present investigation, the heritability (broad sense) was less than 50 % with low heritability. The characters seed cotton yield exhibited highest heritability (43.74%) and number of monopodia per plant showed lowest heritability (1.79%).
Four characters, viz., plant height (6.98), number of bolls per plant (3.62), seed cotton yield (2.58) and ginning outturn (1.83), showed high magnitude of genetic advance, whereas, seed cotton yield (22.74) and number of bolls per plant (15.54) exhibited high genetic advance expressed as a percentage of the mean.
In the other words, the traits which had the least genotypic coefficients of variation also had lowest expected genetic improvement. Seed cotton yield and number of bollls per plant had high genotypic coefficient of variation also had highest genetic advance as mean.
2 Discussion
The performance of two top hybrids viz., RAH 97 x SC 18 and RAH 146 x RGR 37 in respect of seed cotton yield needs to be verified for their performance on large scale basis. The analysis of variance among 48 hybrids and checks tested in 2 replications indicated that mean sum of squares for hybrids was highly significant for all the characters except number of monopodia per plant, mean boll weight and seed index indicating presence of significant differences among the hybrids evaluated in respect of these traits. The mean sum of squares for hybrids vs checks was highly significant for plant height number of sympodia per plant, number of bolls per plant, seed cotton yield per plant and ginning outturn revealing superiority of hybrids over checks and presence of heterosis in respect of these traits. These results are in confirmity with the studies of Vande and Thombre (1983), Vaman et al. (1985), Mirkhmedov et al. (1987), Mehla et al. (1988), Simongulyan and Kim (1990), Munasov et al. (1990), Tagiev (1991), Virk et al. (1991), Dever and Gannaway (1992) and Akumurdov and Chapau (1992).
Some of the previous workers reported a wide range of genotypic and phenotypic variability for most of the characters. Seth and Singh (1984) reported a wide variation for boll number, yield and number of primary and secondary monopodia. Ali et al. (2009) found that genotypic, phenotypic and environmental co-efficients of variability were highest for fiber fineness (8.0, 13.8 and 11.2%, respectively) follow by cotton seed yield, staple length and fiber strength.
Heritability estimates encountered in present study were also common in previous literature. Sinde and Deshmukh (1985) observed that heritability was high for boll number, ginning percentage, days to flowering and yield in G. arboreum. Bhatade and Bhale (1984) grown 7 x 7 diallel crosses of G. arboreum at 4 sites and found moderate to high heritability for ginning outturn and halo length, but low for seed and lint indices. Seth and Singh (1984) in a study with parents, F1, F2 and F3 from each of five crosses involving six cotton varieties of G. hirsutum reported that boll number, yield and number of primary and secondary monopodia showed high broad sense heritability and genetic advance.
High heritability and genetic advance are usually more helpful in predicting gain under selection than heritability estimates alone. According to Osman and Khirdir (1974) usually low heritability coupled with low genetic advance is an indication of non-additive gene effects and consequently a low genetic gain is expected from selection. On the other hand, an association of high heritability with high genetic advance is indicative of additive gene effects and consequently a high genetic gain from selection would be anticipated.
According to Johnson et al. (1955) high heritability and genetic advance are usually more helpful in predicting gain under selection than heritability estimates alone. According to Osman and Khirdir (1974) usually low heritability coupled with low genetic advance is an indication of non-additive gene effects and consequently a low genetic gain is expected from selection. On the other hand, an association of high heritability with high genetic advance is indicative of additive gene effects and consequently a high genetic gain from selection would be anticipated.
3 Materials and Methods
The plant materials used in the present study were obtained by Line x Tester crossing. According to this method, RAH 318 (L1), RAH 243(L2), RAH 128 (L3), RAH 146 (L4), RAH 97 (L5) and RAH 124 (L6) were crossed as the lines with SC 14 (T1), SC 18 (T2), SC 7(T3), SC 68 (T4), RGR 32 (T5), RGR 24 (T6), RGR 58 (T7) and RGR 37 (T8) as the testers. The six hirsutum lines representing Robust plant type classes but differing in efficiency of physiological processes like photosynthesis, were selected and crossed to a set of eight testers representing compact types and faster growth rate. The seeds of the hybrids were supplied by Dr. S.S.Patil, Senior Cotton Breeder, Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad Farm, Karnataka, India, in 2008. The experiment comprising of 48 experimental hybrids along with 3 checks (BUNNY Bt, RCH2 Bt and RAHH 95) (one repeated two times) was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two replications. Each entry was sown in 3 row plots of 6 m length spaced at 90 cm with recommended dose of fertilizer and treatment of seeds with imidochloprid were sown on 10-7-2008, 2-3 seeds were dibbled per spot in each row and thinning was attended to retain one healthy plant per hill at 25 days after sowing. All the recommended package of practices was followed to raise healthy crop.
Samples containing 20 bolls were hand-harvested from each plot prior to picking. The days to 50 per cent flowering recorded by the number of days taken from the date of sowing to the date when the first flower opens in 50 per cent of the plants. The number of monopodia per plant are the number of branches on main stem which were lateral and axillary in position with vertical growth in a cropetal succession was counted at maturity stage , avoiding small sprouts, but the number of sympodia per plant are branches which are extra-axillary in position and normally horizontal with zig -zag pattern of fruiting points were taken as sympodia. The number of such sympodia on main stem was counted at maturity stage. The boll samples were weighed to determine seed cotton weight per boll values, and ginned on a roller using laboratory gin for lint percentage (100 x lint weight/seed cotton weight) and 100-seed weight calculations (seed index). The ginned lint from each plot was weighed and divided by the number of plants within each plot to determine lint yield per plant. Five plants were selected randomly from each genotype to find the boll number per plant.
Heritability measures the relative amount of the heritable portion of variability and provides useful information for effective selection. The ration of the total genetic variation to the total phenotypic or observed variation is termed as co-efficient of heritability in broad sense where as the ratio of the additive genetic variation to the total observed variation is called the co-efficient of heritability in the narrow sense.
Phenotypic and genotypic variances, their co-efficient, heritability and genetic advance were calculated as follows:

 
 h2 (b ) = Heritability in broad sense= VG/VP and h2 (n ) = Heritability in narrow sense= VA/VP
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