Increasing CO2 Concentration Impact upon Natural Phytoplankton Community at Spermonde Island, Indonesia: Mesocosm Study  

Nita Rukminasari1 , Muhammad Lukman1 ,  Sahabuddin2
1. Marine Science and Fisheries Faculty, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
2. Research Institution for Coastal Aquaculture, Maros, Indonesia
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Marine Science, 2014, Vol. 4, No. 18   doi: 10.5376/ijms.2014.04.00018
Received: 08 Dec., 2013    Accepted: 20 Jan., 2014    Published: 24 Feb., 2014
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Rukminasari et al., 2014, Increasing CO<sub>2</sub> Concentration Impact upon Natural Phytoplankton Community at Spermonde Island, Indonesia: Mesocosm Study, International Journal of Marine Science, Vol.4, No.18: 166-178 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2014.04.0018)

Abstract
Ocean acidification is one of an environment problem due to increasing CO2 concentration. Ocean acidification have shown a negatively impact to marine organisms especially calcifying organisms such as microalgae, coral reef and other invertebrate organisms. Decreasing in carbonate saturation state on the calcification rates of individual species and communities in both planktonic and benthic habitats were occurred due to seawater acidification.
The study was conducted at three locations: Barru, Takalar and Barrang Lompo Island using mesocosm technique with two different of incubation periods (48 and 96 hours). Six pCO2 level based on adding acid base treatments were used, which were 280, 380, 550, 650, 750 and 1000 ppm with 4 replicates

 

In general, alkalinity decreased with increasing CO2 concentration. However, length of incubation was showed no significant affected to DIC for all CO2 concentration at Barru and Barrang Lompo mesocosm experiment. PIC and POC showed a varied response between all locations of mesocosms experiment. There was a trend where increasing of POC with increasing of CO2 concentration. PIC concentration at Barru and Takalar showed a slightl higher at 96 hours than 48 hours of incubation period and for Barrang Lompo mesocosm experiment PIC was higher at 48 hours than 96 hours of incubation period. Chlorophyll a and cell abundance was decresing with increasing CO2 concentration. Growth, photosynthesis and calcification rate decreased with increasing CO2 concentration.
Keywords
Ocean acidification; Calcifying microalgae; Calcification rate; Natural phytoplankton community; Mesocosm study; Spermonde Islands

1 Introduction
Nowadays, CO2 concentration in the atmosphere increase dramatically due to increasing human activities. Sources of CO2 emission mostly are through fossil fuel utilization, cement production and biomass burning (Gattuso et al., 1998). Approximately half of the released CO2 remains in the atmosphere, presently increasing p CO2 at a rate of 0.4% per yr (Houghton et al., 1996). Meanwhile, CO2 uptake by surface seawater increases the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and decrease pH. Furthermore, increased concentration of dissolved CO2 resultsin a decreased carbonate concentration and therefore, a decreased saturation state (Gattuso et al, 1998, 1999). Those conditions create ocean acidification.

Ocean acidification and the related changes in
seawater chemistry may directly impact marine organisms and ecosystem. It will also lead to a decrease in the saturation state of seawaterwith respect to calcite and aragonite, two common forms of calcium carbonate secreted by marine calcifying organisms (Orr et al., 2005). Zeebe and Gladrow (2003) have calculated that, if the pCO2 was doubled inthe sea water, the concentration of carbonate should be reduced by 50% approximately, and the pH by 0.35 unit. Calcification of marine calcareous organisms is strongly dependent on the carbonate saturation state of seawater, suggesting th
International Journal of Marine Science
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