Sprostoniella teria sp. Nov. (Monogenea: Capsalidae Baird, 1853: Trochopodinae) parasite of Platax teira, from Iraqi marine water, Arab Gulf.  

Majid Abdul Aziz Bannai , Essa T. Muhammad
Aquaculture and marine fisheries, marine science center, University of Basra, Iraq
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Marine Science, 2014, Vol. 4, No. 51   doi: 10.5376/ijms.2014.04.0051
Received: 06 Aug., 2014    Accepted: 22 Aug., 2014    Published: 27 Aug., 2014
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Bannai and Muhammad, 2014, Sprostoniella teria sp. Nov. (Monogenea: Capsalidae Baird, 1853: Trochopodinae) parasite of Platax teira, from Iraqi marine water, Arab Gulf., International Journal of Marine Science, Vol.4, No.51 1-3 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2014.04.0051)


One parasite was detected as Sprostoniella teria from gill filaments of Platax teira were collected from Arabian Gulf . Results give an indication that the parasites are consider as new species in Iraqi marine and Platax teira fishes as anew host in worlds and new geographical distribution.

Monogenea; Sprostoniella teria; Capsalidae Trochopodinae Platax teira; Arabian Gulf, Iraq.

The Monogenea is a class of Platyhelminthes parasitic mostly on external surfaces and gills of freshwater and marine fishes. The Capsalidae are monogeneans parasitizing ‘skin’, fins and gills of marine fishes, approximately 200 Capsalidae species are placed in nine subfamilies and 44–46 genera, some of which are well known (Benedenia, Capsala, Entobdella, Neobenedenia).

Presently, there are about 200 described capsalid species in nine subfamilies and 44–46 genera. The host range comprises elasmobranchs (sharks and batoids Whittington and Chisholm 2003) and teleosts, including primitive sturgeons (Yamaguti 1963, Whittington et al. 2004). Because of their direct life cycle, some monogeneans can affect fish in captivity (Chisholm et al. 2004) and there are increasing reports that some capsalids adversely affect fish in aquaculture and are even responsible for epizootic events (Whittington et al. 2004).
The Capsalidae Baird, 1853 (Monogenea, Monopisthocotylea) constitutes a large taxon of seven subfamilies, including the EncotyllabinaeMonticelli, 1892, Capsalinae Baird, 1853, Benedeniinae Johnston, 1931, Nitzschiinae Johnston, 1931, Trochopodinae Price, 1936, Entobdellinae Bychowsky, 1957 and Interniloculinae Suriano & Beverley-Burton, 1979, see Diagram 1 Egorova,1999; Pérez-Ponce de León & Mendoza-Garfias, 2000.

Diagram 1 Diagrammatic of the nine subfamilies Capsalidae

According to Kritsky & Fennessy (1999) the family of Capsalidae includes more than 40 genera of about 200 species and Capsalids parasites a wide host spectrum of marine fishes, including elasmobranchs of the orders Squaliformes, Rajiformes and Lamniformes as well as actinopterygians of the orders Acipenseriformes, Anguilliformes, Perciformes, Tetraodontiformes, Zeiformes, Scorpaeniformes and Pleuronectiformes
The Capsalinae is a subfamily of 60 monogenean parasite species which live primarily on the skin and gills of highly-prized game fish. Members of the Capsalinae can be distinguished from other capsalids by the presence of a septate haptor, a single pair of haptoral accessory sclerites and multiple testes (Whittington 2004). Diagnostic characters of this genus are the two neighboring groups of testes, and the structure of loculi of the Haptor, these characters were confirmed by Ergorova (1994) in her revision of Trochopodinae.
The Capsalidae fauna of Arabian Gulf and Iraq marine water is reported and discussed and a new host and locality records presented. New host and locality records and a description are given ofMonogenea of Arabian Gulf fishes by Kardousha 2002, Descriptions of three Capsala spp. (Capsalidae) including Capsala naffari n. sp. infecting mackerel tuna Euthynnus affinis from coasts of Emirates. Three species of the genus Capsala including Capsala naffari n. sp., C. neothunni (Yamaguti, 1968) and C. nozawae (Goto, 1894) are recorded and described from the buccal cavity of mackerel tuna Euthynnus affinis caught from Emirate coasts. Capsala naffari can be differentiated by its lateral spiniform teeth, which extend posteriorly, small measurements compared with the closely resembled C. gotoi and relatively large testes.
1 Material and methods
Monthly fish samples were collected from Khor Abdullah, north west of the Arabian Gulf, from March of the year 2014. A Total of five fish specimens were collected. These fishes were kept in ice box and brought to the laboratory. The methods and techniques used for collection, relaxation, fixation, staining and mounting of helminthes are basically those described by Roberts (2001). Fishes measured 40 – 46.0 cm of total length, and weighted 5kg. All the Monogenea parasites were fixed in A.F.A., preserved in ethanol 70°GL, stained with Gomori’s trichrome, and mounted in Canada balsam. Measurements were made in micrometers. Parasites identification according Yamaguti, 1968 and Ian D. Whittington, 2004). Drawings were prepared by Camera Lucida.
2 Result and Discussion
During a parasitological survey of marine fishes from the coastal zone of the Iraqi marine water. Sprostoniella teira. was found on the gill filaments of Platax teira specimens (Figure 1).

Figure 1 A-Camera Lucida drawing Sprostoniella teira ventral view scale bar 1 mm, b-reproductive system;c-haptor; d-hooks scale bar 0.5

Description (based on one whole-mount): Body 4.047 mm in length, elliptical width 2.5 mm in tests aria. Four eyes with trapezoidal arrangement. Haptor 1.61 ×1.3 mm in diameter, with 11 septa, not bifid, and incomplete; central locale absent. One pairs of anchors. Buccal organs 0.28 mm long, 0.527 wide; pharynx 0.19 long, 0.178 wide. Intestinal ceca not confluent posteriorly. Testes, 1.05 long, 0.54 wide, in two groups, each group with 9 testes. Posterior to pharynx genital atrium opened to left of pharynx. Ovary is oval, 0.21 mm in diameter, pretesticular; short uterus; vagina long, one seminal receptacle; vitellaria limited in trunk.
The validity of genera and species in the Capsalinae and Trochopodinae are now most in need of extensive reappraisal ,these two large subfamilies each comprise approximately 50 species and together account for more than 50% of all described capsalid taxa. Egorova (1989) and Lamothe Argumedo (1997) disagree about the number of capsaline genera which impacts on the composition of other genera. The Trochopodinae, almost exclusively parasites from gills of perciform teleosts, are perhaps the most morphologically diverse subfamily with regard to: number of haptoral loculi; arrangement of anterior attachment apparatus; number of testes (two arranged either juxtaposed Megalocotyloides or in tandem Macrophyllida four Trilobiodiscus or multiple in two groups. Sprostoniella Egorova 1994. The large number of genera containing few species reflects morphological diversity in trochopodines: all but three of the 17 genera contain only one to three species
Diagnostic characters of this genus are the two neighboring groups of testes, and the structure of loculi of the haptor. These characters were confirmed by Ergorova (1994) in her revision of Trochopodinae.
The Genus consist of three species of Sprostoniella, S. lamothei Pérez-Ponce de Léon & Mendoza-Garfias, 2000;S. multitestis Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1967; S. micrancyra Cezar, Luque y Amato, 1999.
Bychowsky & Nagibina (1967) established Sprostoniella with the type species S. multitestis parasitic on Platax pinnatus (L.). Sprostoniella micrancyra as described as new species are differ from S. multitestis by the arrangement of septa (with 17 septa, two of them bifid and two incomplet whereas 17 septa, two of them trifid in S. multitestis. Moreover, Sprostoniella micrancyra showed two central loculi, while S. multitestis only one, in Sprostoniella micrancyra the first pair of anchors is small and poorly developed, while in S. multitestis is well developed and strong (Cezar et.al, 1999).
The specimens described in this study differ from the two types above by the fallowing: 11 septa; not bifid, incomplete and central locale absent, one pairs of anchors; Testes, in two groups, each group with 9 testes. So we consider this as a new species and Platax teira represents a new host and new geographical dist.
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