Bioconcentration Factor and Translocation Factor of Copper (Cu) in Avicennia sp. at Rawameneng and Blanakan Ponds, Subang Regency, West Java, Indonesia  

Takarina N.D.1 , Tjiong Giok Pin2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia
Department of Geography, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 16424, Indonesia
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Marine Science, 2015, Vol. 5, No. 59   doi: 10.5376/ijms.2015.05.0059
Received: 29 Jul., 2015    Accepted: 28 Aug., 2015    Published: 09 Dec., 2015
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Takarina N.D., 2015, Bioconcentration Factor and Translocation Factor of Copper (Cu) in Avicennia sp. at Rawameneng and Blanakan Ponds, Subang Regency, West Java Indonesia, International Journal of Marine Science, 5(59): 1-5 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2015.05.0059)

Abstract

Mangrove has important role in estuarine area. In Subang Regency, mangrove is combined with ponds in order to improve the quality of environment. Bioconcentration factor and translocation factor can be used to understand the ability of mangrove in accumulating heavy metal. The objective of this research is to measure the content of copper (Cu), its bioconcentration factor and translocation factor in Avicennia sp. at Rawameneng and Blanakan ponds. Samples of sediment and mangrove were taken from three stations from each location. Copper content in mangrove and sediment were analyzed using AAS Shimadzu 6300. Result showed that, from all stations, station 2 had the highest content of copper which were found in sediment and mangrove’s stem. Bioconcentration factor of Avicennia sp. in both ponds were lower than 1. In contrast, the translocation factor of Avicennia sp. in both area were mostly higher than 1. Those indicated that the ability of mangrove in translocating heavy metal from root to stem and leaf has slight difference.

Keywords
Avicennia sp; Copper; Bioconcentration factor; Ponds; Translocation factor

Introduction
Blanakan and Rawameneng areas are known for fish farming. Those farming are held to increase fisheries product. Mangrove is integrated within the fish farm to keep good condition of environment. Mangrove plant growth is affected by number of biotic and abiotic factors (Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001).  High salinity and temperature also drought are common abiotic stress conditions that adversely affect plant growth and production (Kransensky and Jonak 2012).
 
Mangrove has many functions such as prevent  erosion, provide place for feeding ground and mating of biota. Besides that, mangrove has role as pollutant trap (Sunaryo 2013). The later  is related with ability of mangrove to accumulate and tolerate heavy metal in high amount. According to Khesavarz et al. (2012), Avicennia marina and Rhizopora mucronata tend to have ability in accumulating heavy metals. Accumulation of heavy metal in mangrove had been reported by some researchers. Hamzah and Setiawan (2010) stated that the content of Zn in mangrove root is higher than in stem, leave and sediment. Heryanto and Subiandono (2011) reported that the content of Cu was accumulated in stem and root of mangrove.

According to Malik et al. (2010) by using bioconcentration and translocation factor, the capability of mangrove in accumulating heavy metal could bemeasured . Usman et al. (2013) stated that A. marina has bioconcentration and translocation factor higher than 1 for Cu and Cr. It showed that this kind of mangrove is effective and efficient for Cu and Cr remediation.

Heavy metal has influence in ecology and human health (Zabin and Howladar 2015). Copper (Cu) is one of essential metals that needed by organism/biota.  However, in excessive amount, it can be toxic and pollute the environment. The sources of Cu come from waste of human activities like industries, housing, farming,  etc. (Nugrahanto et al., 2014).

Materials and Methods
Location and sampling area

Samples of fish, shrimp, mangrove and sediment were collected from 3 stasions in Rawameneng and 3 stations in Blanakan. The coordinates from every stations were showed in the table 5.
Fish, shrimp, mangrove and sediment samples were collected from two primary locations, first from Rawameneng fish farm (Figure 1) and second from Blanakan fish farm (Figure 2).

 
Figure 1 Sampling Location at Rawameneng Ponds

 

 
Figure 2 Sampling location at Blanakan ponds 


In each location, sediments were collected using Ekman grab, while mangrove parts (root, stem and leave) were taken using stainless steel knife. Then, samples preserved and stored in cooler box and freezed at -20̊ C until further analysis.
 
Heavy metal analysis
Heavy metal (Cu) content in mangroves and sediments were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). First, sediments were dried for 5 hours at 105 ºC and mangrove parts were dried at 80 ºC using Neycraft oven. Dried sediment samples were destructed using aquaregia (HNO3:HCl=3:1) + HF, and dried mangrove samples were destructed using aquregia. Samples then heated on hot plate until the solution volume shrank to 1 – 3 ml. Furthermore, samples were hommogenized. Now, samples were ready for the heavy metal (Cu) analysis using AAS Shimadzu 6300. Performance of the instrument was checked by analyzing the reference standard solution.
 
Water quality parameter
Dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, Salinity, and temperature were measured using DO meter (Lutron DO-5510), pH meter, Master Refractometer Atago, thermometer, respectively.
 
Bioconcentration and translocation factor
Bioconcentration factor was measured using formula (Cui et al. 2007),

 

 

 

Translocation factor can be calculated using follow formula (Cui et al. 2007),

 
Result and Discussion
Based on the water quality measurement (Table 1) it seems that the highest temperature at Rawameneng ponds was in station 1, which is close to population/housing, while highest DO and salinity were in station 3, it is because this station close to coastal area where mixing of sea water and freshwater occurs. Moreover, the content of Cu in mangrove stem was higher compared to root and leaf. This is supported by the high temperature and low salinity. The high temperature can cause the rate of metabolism higher, as a consequence, metals can easily dissolve, while lower salinity can cause the metal released in the environment and absorbed by mangrove. On the contrary, higher salinity in station 3 makes the content of Cu in root higher compared to stem or leaf.

Meanwhile, Table 2 showed the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) of Cu in Avicennia sp., it seems that station 1 also has the highest BCF in root, stem, and leaf. That is because station 1 located very close to the population/housing.
Based on water quality measurement, it seems that in Blanakan ponds the value of temperature, pH, and DO where not much different, however, for salinity, station 3 has the highest value (Table 3). The highest content of Cu in the sediment and root of mangrove  were found at station 1. This is because the temperature in this site was also higher than other station. High temperature will cause the rate of metabolism inside of the body of mangrove increase. Bioconcentration factor of Cu in Avicennia sp. was highest in stem at station 2. The low salinity at station 2 (Table 4) cause the metals easily to be released.

 
Table 1 Water Quality Parameters measured in Rawameneng Ponds 

 

 
Table 2 Bioconcentration Factors (BCF) and Translocation Factor (TF) of Cu in Avicennia at Rawameneng Ponds


Based on Table 4, it can be said that Avicennia sp. found at both location mostly has translocation factor more than 1. It seems that this plant has  good translocation potency in order to move metals, especially Cu from one organ to another. Chakraborty et al. (2013) and Nath (2014) explained that translocation of Cu by Avicennia marina was high.

 

 

 
Table 3 Water Quality Parameters measured in Blanakan Ponds 

 

 

 
Table 4 Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) and Translocation Factor (TF) of Cu in Avicennia at Blanakan Ponds 


Conclusion
Salinity and temperature have very important role in determining te easiness of metals to be dissolved in the environment. Location of ponds close to population or housing have higher metals content than ones that far away from human activities. Stem of Avicennia sp. has highest BCF due to the easiness of metal to be translocated from root to the stem.
 
Acknowledgement
We acknowledge Universitas Indonesia for its Multidisciplinary  Research Grant 2015 with contract number SK No. 1642/UNZ.R12/HKP.05.00/2015

 

 

 
Table 5 Coordinates of sampling stations in Blanakan

 

 

 
Table 6 Coordinates of sampling stations in Rawameneng



References
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Hamzah F., and Setiawan A., 2010, Akumulasi Logam Berat Pb, Cu, dan Zn di Hutan Mangrove Muara Angke, Jakarta Utara, Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis 2(2): 41-52

Heryanto N. M., and Subiandono E., 2011, Penyerapan Polutan Logam Berat (Hg, Pb dan Cu) oleh Jenis-jenis Mangrove, Jurnal Penelitian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam, 8(2): 177-188

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