Review Article

Ecotoxicology and Monitoring of Toxic Pollutants in the Marine Environment- A Review  

M. Mohan , Jyothy S , Navya Cherian , Toms Augustine , K. Sreedharan , V. G. Gopikrishna
School of Environmental Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam-686560, India
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Marine Science, 2016, Vol. 6, No. 9   doi: 10.5376/ijms.2016.06.0009
Received: 11 Nov., 2015    Accepted: 24 Mar., 2016    Published: 28 Mar., 2016
© 2016 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Mohan M., Gopikrishna V.G., Cherian N., Jyothy S., Augustine T., and Sreedharan K., 2016, Monitoring of Toxic Pollutants in the Marine Environment- A Review, International Journal of Marine Science, 6(9): 1-20 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2016.06.0009)

Abstract

Since the turn of the century, the marine environment is getting adulterated day by day due to several anthropogenic activities which eventually leads to marine biodiversity loss. Land-based sources play a key role in polluting the marine environment. The pollutants once entered the marine ecosystem has got a chance to transform chemically or biologically, bioaccumulate or even biomagnify. Heavy metals, plastics, POPs, radioactive materials and other contaminants contribute much to the marine pollution. The resultant outcome of this voluminous oceanic pollution is a real threat to the entire biota. This chapter throws light on the various impacts of toxic pollutants on the marine ecosystems and the effective monitoring possibilities.

Keywords
Marine environment; Ecotoxicology; Toxic pollutants; Heavy metals

1 Introduction
Humans depend on marine ecosystems for a number of valuable goods and services. But human activities has also altered the marine ecosystems through direct and indirect means leading to marine biodiversity loss which in turn increasingly impair the ocean's capacity to provide food, maintain water quality, and recover from perturbations (Worm et al., 2006). Until recently, it was widely assumed that no matter how much trash and chemicals humans dumped into oceans, the effects would be negligible. But recent studies have showed that human activities have severely affected the marine biodiversity, yet many upper trophic level species, including seabirds, marine mammals and large predatory fish, remain depleted owing to human activities (Lotze et al., 2006). The intensity of these human activities and their magnitude of impact on the ecological condition of marine communities vary across the globe (Halpern et al., 2008). Understanding the sources of pollution and their impacts on ecosystems is needed to improve and rationalize human activities and to develop appropriate mitigation measures and management strategies (Islam and Tanaka, 2004).
 
The majority of the contaminants entering the marine environment are from land-based sources-primarily from agricultural, urban and industrial sources. Land-based activities cause the runoff of pollutants and nutrients into coastal waters via rivers and estuaries causing deleterious effect on coastal and marine ecosystems (Syvitski et al., 2005). Atmospheric deposition, spills and dumping of dredging materials also contribute to marine pollution. Furthermore, ocean-based activities overexploit resources, spread invasive species and diseases, and change species composition (Crain et al., 2009). Indirect human effects on ocean chemistry can also occur, mainly through global warming and climate change, resulting in increasing sea surface temperatures and ocean acidification (Doney, 2010). The present paper attempts to provide a review on the major threats from the pollutants to marine ecosystems with special focus on their sources and their ecosystem-level impacts and how they can best be monitored.
 
2 Marine Ecotoxicology - Fate, Transport and impact of pollutants
The understanding of the impact of pollutants on environment is normally based on the toxicological studies with organisms that can readily be obtained, cultured, and tested, which can be characterized as environmental toxicology. Although those studies are useful to understand the effects of environmental contaminants on test organisms individually, the interactions of the species with each other and with the abiotic environment are not considered in those type of test. Hence a paradigm shift is occurring, the significance of ecology in toxicology is increasing and the integrated word is known as ecotoxicology (Chapman, 1995; Baird et al., 1996). Ecotoxicology understands the types of effects caused by chemicals, the biochemical and physiological processes responsible for those effects, the relative sensitivities of different types of organisms to chemical exposures, and the relative toxicities and fate of different chemicals and chemical classes in the environment (Chapman, 2002). Highly persistent pollutants released into the terrestrial or aquatic environment finally reach the marine ecosystem, where it can undergo transformation, transport and accumulation.
 
The chemical and physical properties especially the persistence in the environment is the major controlling factor for the transport of pollutants in the marine environment (Walker and Livingstone). Generally pollutants that readily shift their distribution between gas and condensed phase in response to temperature variations can travel long distance when compared with the involatile and water soluble contaminants. In the marine environment, circulations can take the pollutants from one region to other ones. The pollutants associated with particulate matter due to physical mixing can be vertically transported and settles at ocean sediments (Gioia et al., 2011). A part of the organic matter pools like phytoplankton, which accumulated the pollutants, especially the  hydrophobic ones, can also settles to the deep ocean and carries organic matter-bound pollutants (Dachs et al., 2002). The pollutants can chemically or biologically transform and bioaccumulate or biomagnify based on their bioavailability and lipophilic character. Some of the solid pollutants, e.g. plastics, can aggregate into big size particles. Ocean currents corrals trillions of decomposing plastic items and other trash into gigantic, swirling garbage patches. One such massive patch was discovered in North Pacific, known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch (Kaiser, 2010). The schematic representation of general fate of toxic pollutants in marine ecosystem is shown in the Figure 1.
 

 

Figure 1 The general fate of pollutants in the marine environment

 

3 Pollutants and Their Toxic Impact on Marine Ecosystem

3.1 Heavy metals
The role of heavy metals in polluting the marine environment has gained a great deal of consideration these days. They accumulate in marine organisms and sediments and finally reach the humans through food chain. The major culprits in this area are Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb, As, Zn, and Cu. Out of these Hg and Cd snatches more attention due to their well-known toxic effects and biomagnification efficiency. Industrial discharge, agriculture run off, combustion, urban discharge, mining etc are the sources by which the heavy metals reach the marine environment (Bilandzic et al., 2011).
 
The major toxicity effects of heavy metals are following
 
- The blocking of essential functional groups of the biomolecules like proteins and enzymes
- The displacement of a metal ion from a biomolecule
- The inhibition of function of biomolecules by the modification of the structure
 
The heavy metals do not decompose naturally and in aquatic environment some of them get converted to more toxic forms thereby posing a real threat to marine organisms and human health. The best example is the conversion of mercury into methyl mercury (MHg). The concern about the metal transfer in the marine food web and its ecotoxicological studies stem from the Minamata incident which occurred in the 1950’s in Japan (Wang, 2002). Mercury is a global pollutant and it is highly persistent in the environment (Lacerda and Fitzgerald, 2001). Due to the very low solubility product of its compounds the major portion of mercury that reaches the coastal sea gets precipitated and accumulated in the sediments (Spada et al., 2012). Here it can stay for a longer period undergoing many transformations. The conversion of mercury to its organic form - methyl mercury under favourable conditions is more dangerous (Ullrich et al., 2001). The monomethyl form of mercury is the major part of mercury in fishes and shell fishes. Hence its consumption on regular basis may serious threat to humans (Giani et al., 2012, Agah et al., 2007). Cadmium accumulates mainly in the kidneys and liver of marine organisms (Ozden et al., 2010). The levels of mercury and cadmium in the fishes and mussels from various sites are shown in the Table 1.
 
The accumulation of metals varies according to the chemical form. Claisse et al. (2001) found that mussels accumulated higher Hg and MHg concentrations in their soft tissues than oysters, but they have less MHg than fish and hence apparently present a smaller risk to human consumers. Mussels generally accumulate more metals than any other organism. A review on metal accumulation in Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, revealed that the concentrations of toxic metals were in the following order: As>Pb>Cd>Hg (Stankovic and Jovic, 2012).
 
3.2 Plastic Pollution
Plastics constitute the most significant part of marine litter deposits and all rubbish floating in the oceans. Marine litter consists of items that have been made or used by people and deliberately discarded into the sea or rivers or on beaches; brought indirectly to the sea with rivers, sewage, storm water or winds; accidentally lost, including material lost at sea in bad weather (fishing gear, cargo); or deliberately left by people on beaches and shores (UNEP, 2003). Monitoring the extent of plastic pollution in the marine environment at a global scale is complicated due to the large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the amounts of plastic debris and also due to our limited understanding of the pathways followed by plastic debris and its long-term fate (Ryan et al., 2009).
 
Plastics are dumped in huge volumes in well-used beaches, lakes, navigation channels and other forms of water masses. Most plastics are less dense than water, and it enable them to float and readily be transported for long distances from source areas. Floating plastic debris have become a global problem now because they are carried across ocean basins, contaminating even the most remote islands and polar regions (Barnes, et al., 2009). The UN Environment Programme estimated that in 2006 that every square mile of ocean contains 46,000 pieces of floating plastic (UNEP, 2006).
Plastics do not degrade easily and thus poses a real threat to the marine world (Laist, 1997). Most plastics break down slowly through a combination of photo degradation, oxidation and mechanical abrasion (Andrady, 2003). Except for expanded polystyrene, plastics take much longer time to degrade in water than they do on land, mainly due to the reduced UV exposure and lower temperatures found in aquatic habitats (Gregory and Andrady, 2003). Thick plastic items persist for decades, even when subject to direct sunlight, and survive even longer when shielded from UV radiation under water or in sediments.
 

 

Table 1 Concentrations of Hg and Cd in marine organisms across the globe.

 
The most widely recognized problems caused by marine litter pollution are typically associated with entanglement, ingestion, suffocation and general debilitation (Gregory, 2009). According to the UN Environment Programme, plastic debris causes the deaths of more than a million seabirds every year, as well as more than 100,000 marine mammals (UNESCO, 2015). About 44% of all seabird species unfortunately ingest plastic. Sea turtles ingest plastic bags, fishing line and other plastics. A recent study revealed that about 267 species of marine organisms are badly affected by plastic pollution in one way or the other (Moore, 2008).
 
Another outcome of the plastic pollution is the invasion of alien species. Plastics are capable of carrying non-native, invasive pest species over long distances and thus increase the domain of certain marine organisms. There is also potential danger to marine ecosystems from the accumulation of plastic debris on the sea floor. The accumulation of such debris can inhibit gas exchange between the overlying waters and the pore waters of the sediments, and disrupt or badly affect benthic organisms.
 
Given the impacts of plastic litter, considerable effort should be made to remove waste plastic and other persistent debris from the marine environment. This removal can be conducted before it enters the sea, through litter collection and screening waste water systems (e.g. Marais and Armitage, 2004) or, thereafter, through periodic collections of litter from beaches (e.g. Ryan and Swanepoel 1996) or the seabed (e.g. Donohue et al. 2001). However, the most efficient and cost-effective solution is an “action at source”- approach creating awareness among people to reduce the release of plastics into the environment. The use of biodegradable plastics also will not help in reducing marine pollution. The plastics labelled as “biodegradable” will be used more by public and also the complete degradation of plastics by biological agents occurs very rarely even in the marine environment (UNEP 2015).
 
3.3 Microplastics and their impacts
Microplastics are the tiny fragments of plastics, fibres and granules in the environment and they exhibit a wide range of sizes varying from diameters, <10mm to <1mm (Barnes et al., 2009; Browne et al., 2010, Claessens et al., 2011). They can be also classified as primary (microscopic size) and secondary (products of breakdown of larger plastics debris) (Cole et al., 2011).
 
The small size enables pelagic and benthic marine organisms including sea birds to easily ingest microplastics and causes mechanical hazards (blocking the feeding appendages or by hindering the passage of food through the intestinal tract) especially to small marine organisms like zooplanktons, invertebrates and echinoderm larvae because they cannot differentiate it from their food (Moore, 2008; Tourinho et al., 2010; Barnes et al., 2009). Also microplastic can be easily absorbed into the body through the processes of translocation. The large surface- area- to- volume ratio of microplastics will cause for leaching of additives (e.g. Phthalates, Bisphenol A etc.) after the ingestion and finally interferes with many of the biological processes resulting in endocrine disruption, which in turn affects the mobility, reproduction and development, and can also result in carcinogenesis (Barnes et al., 2009; Lithner et al., 2011). The large surface area enables microplastics to act as vehicles in pollutant transport (Ashton et al., 2010; Cole et al., 2011).
 
3.4 POPs Pollution
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) comprise both chlorinated as well as brominated environmental contaminants. Chlorinated organic pollutants include Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) [e.g., DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] and brominated ones include polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Organochlorine pesticides have been widely used throughout the globe both in agricultural sector and in control of vector borne diseases. For example, DDT was largely used against vectors and pests that cause tropical diseases, such as malaria and visceral leishmaniosis (van den Berg, 2009). However, POPs have the ability to bio-accumulate in organisms and in turn biomagnify through the food chain due to their hydrophobic nature and persistence in the environment (UNEP, 2003). Due to their very long persistence in the environment and impact on non-target organisms and biological accumulation via the food chain, the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001 registered most of these substances on a priority list of pollutants and steps were taken to reduce their global production and usage.
 
Although the production and use of most of the POPs has been banned or restricted in many countries, various studies have shown that these contaminants are still present in coastal and marine environments; ie in water (Qiu et al., 2009) sediments (Galanopoulou et al., 2005), and biota (Potrykus et al., 2003, Alava et al., 2011). Many studies also revealed that seafood consumption is the main contributor to total dietary intakes of POPs in humans (Jiang et al., 2005; Moon et al., 2009).
 
POPs are easily adsorbed onto suspended particulate matter in both freshwater and marine situations, and may rapidly deposit to sediments. From such sinks, they can enter living organisms, via flux through the water phase, and eventual dissolution in tissue lipids (Hutzinger et al., 1974).
Studies on toxic effects of the insecticides lindane and chlorpyrifos, the herbicide diuron, the organometallic antifoulant tributyltin (TBT), and the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Euechinoidea), Ciona intestinalis (Chordata, Ascidiacea), Maja squinado and Palaemon serratus (Arthropoda, Crustacea) showed that the early life stages (embryos and larvae) of marine invertebrates were more likely to be affected (Bellas et al., 2005). The organochlorine and PCB residues in marine biota from different regions are given in the table 2.
 
3.5 Acid Spill
Acids are transported in large quantities by ship every year. Approximately 800,000 tonnes of phosphoric acid,770,000 tons of sulphuric acid, and 650,000 tons of acetic acid are transported through European harbours (Marchand, 2003., HELCOM, 2002). While this, transportation accidents may occur and the consequent oceanic spills have a direct as well as immediate effects on the marine life. The decrease in pH and increase in temperature through the production of toxic gases cause much destruction to the marine world. When these acids interact with the sediments at the bottom, a secondary pollution will arise as a result of the release of the metals (Cabon et al., 2010). The metals are released into the marine environment at varying rates as they are present in sediments with different physico-chemical forms such as labile, carbonate, sulfate, sulfur, organic, etc. (Mohan et al., 2012; Hirose, 2006)
 

       

Table 2 Concentration of Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in marine Biota across the world

 

3.6 Oil spill

Oil spills are extremely dangerous to coastal and marine resources and it affect the feeding, growth, development and reproduction of living organisms. It directly affects the survival of marine organisms and indirectly affects these organisms by reducing the availability of prey. Seabirds are the ones which are mostly affected by the oil spill compared to other marine organisms. It is estimated that between 150,000 and 450,000 marine birds killed by routine releases of oil from tankers. It penetrates the plumage of seabirds or fur of marine mammals, affecting heat insulation and buoyancy (Dalton et al., 2010).

 
The deposition of oil in the shells or by ingestion of emulsified oil during feeding can be caused for tainting of shellfish. It also do harm to other marine organisms by long term exposure to the persistent and bioaccumulative components of oil via several indirect ecosystem processes (Velnado et al., 2010).
 
3.7 Radioactive materials
The world's oceans have been a sink for radioactive waste from the production of nuclear weapons and electric power (Wallberg and Moberg, 2002; Hirose, 2012). In recent years more studies have been carried out on the movement, distribution and possible concentration of radionuclides in the ocean environment (Fowler, 2011). Seawater and sediment are the most important sources of radionuclides to marine organisms (Khan and Wesley, 2012). The concentrations of radionuclide in marine biota can be determined by monitoring fishes since the levels increase in the marine food chain by bio concentration process. The two major consequences of radioactivity at the organism level are (a) toxic effect on living tissues due to the production of strong oxidizing agents by the ionization of atoms and molecules of living materials, (b) the mutation activity.
 
3.8 Upcoming pollutants
The new antifouling agents such as Irgarol and diuron used in small vessels instead of tributyl tin have showed some persistence in the marine environment (Konstantinou and Albanis, 2004). Other pollutants are brominated flame retardants, Nano particles, surfactants, perflourinated compounds and endocrine disrupters.
 
4 Degradation of Toxic Pollutants by Marine Microbes
Microbial communities are the essential but vulnerable part of all the ecosystems, including the deep oceans. Marine bacteria are often under extreme conditions. There are enormous studies on the ability of marine microbes to degrade hydrocarbons (Nikolopoulou and Kalogerakis, 2009, Yakimov et al., 2007, Pelletier et al., 2004). Many studies have been conducted to isolate and characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degrading bacteria in marine and estuarine ecosystems (Daane et al., 2001). Most of the earlier studies were concentrated on isolating maximum amount of pollutant degrading bacteria. In a study carried out by Bachoon et al. (2001), after one month of exposure, the bacterial community profile of the oil-impacted sediments significantly increased compared to the control sediment. However the findings of another research showed something different from the general belief that higher amounts of pollutants may enrich more degrading bacteria. Here the exposure time and PAH concentration caused a reduction of microbial diversity (Hong et al., 2009).
 
Two divergent views cited in the literature are that: (i) Micro organisms can use organic pollutants as their carbon source and thus increase their diversity (Feris et al., 2004) (ii) Organic pollutants pose serious threat to microorganisms and cause serious reduction in their abundance (Bachoon et al., 2001).
 
Hydrocarbon seepage into the benthos affects bacterial community structure as well as diversity (LaMontagne et al., 2004). The study overlooks the long term effects of oil from naturally occurring seeps on sediment bacteria (LaMontagne et al., 2004). A study conducted in Nigeria (Nwanyanwu, and Abu, 2010) revealed the effects of petroleum refinery waste water on marine bacteria. In all the bacterial strains tested, the dehydrogenase activity was progressively inhibited at petroleum concentrations greater than 12.5% (v/v). Discharging of improperly treated effluents would pose serious threat to metabolism of the bacterial strains in natural environments. The mangrove sediment microbial structures are susceptible to PAH contamination, and complex microbial community interactions occur in mangrove sediment (Zhou et al., 2009).
 
Xenobiotic pollutants act as important agents in the induction of lysogenic bacteria in the marine environment (Jiang and Paul, 1996). Sewage associated micro organisms grow and compete with indigenous marine microbial flora (Baross et al., 1975). In the above said study, sewage associated bacteria had shown the capacity to grow under the oceanic conditions equivalent to depth of 2500 m.
The Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS) produced under laboratory conditions by the strain isolated from a microbial mat showed very high binding capacity for copper and iron salts (Xavier et al., 2009). Though this finding was aimed at development of a low cost biosorbents, it could possibly be a threat to the marine microbes.
 
Marine and Environment substrata are often covered by microbial biofilms. The investigations of a study (Labare et al., 1997) from University of Maryland throws light to the toxic effects of bioconcentrated tributyl tin (TBT) on oyster larvae. The study clearly depicts the impacts of bioconcentration of TBT in bacterial biofilms, while the dissolved levels of TBT had no effect on the natural attachment and metamorphosis of the organism on bottom sediments. So the role marine bacterial biofilms should be seriously taken into consideration when evaluating the heavy metal toxicity in the marine environment.
 

 

Table 3 Biomarkers of marine toxic pollutants

 
5 Marine Pollution Monitoring
Environmental degradation of oceans and coastal areas should not be detrimental to human health, economic development, climate issues and biodiversity.
 
The latest studies showed that Hg and POPs are present even in the upper trophic level of marine mammals like polar bears (Ursus maritimus), Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) and seabirds (e.g. Letcher et al., 2010). Letcher et al. (2010) also observed the presence of new pollutants such as polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in Arctic biota indicating the extend of marine pollution by toxic and bioaccumulative pollutants."
 
5.1 Chemical monitoring
Chemical monitoring includes the quantitative analysis of pollutants in water and sediments. Instrumental methods like Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS) and Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) can be used for the detection of metals. Also the organic toxic pollutants can be determined qualitatively and quantitatively by latest chromatographic techniques such as liquid chromatography Quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF), Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) etc. The monitoring of concentration of pollutants in the abiotic environment may not be able to predict the actual effects on the biota. Hence it is very significant to conduct biomonitoring.
 
5.2 Biomonitoring
Biomonitoring is a scientific technique for assessing environment including human exposures to natural and synthetic chemicals, based on sampling and analysis of an individual organism’s tissues and fluids (Zhou et al, 2008). The biomonitoring methods commonly used for aquatic pollution include biota population, bacteria test, acute toxicity assay, chronic toxicity assay, residue analysis etc The in-situ biomonitoring has been reviewed by Hopkin (1993) as it follows:
 
a) Community effects: Presence or absence of species or changes in species composition in an ecosystem due to the effect of pollution.
The log normal distribution of individuals per benthic species in the sediment samples is the simplest method for analysing the impact of pollutants in marine ecosystem.
 
b) Bioconcentration of pollutants : determines the concentration of pollutants accumulated or concentrated in organisms.
Bioaccumulation studies are mainly focused on the (1) lower trophic level organisms like molluscs as they are filter feeders, food sources of vertebrates and (2) wide spread pollutants with longer residence time and lipophilic nature are accumulated easily. In higher mammals it occurs through their diet.
 
c) Effects of pollutants: Marine ecosystem is vast and hence it is very difficult to relate effects with specific pollutants. Addison (1996) suggested the use of three biochemical responses, measurement of energy partitioning in molluscs and analysis of benthic community structure to determine the impact of marine pollution. The three biochemical responses are monooxygenase induction, metallothionein induction and acetylcholine esterase inhibition.
 
d) Genetically based resistance: Assessing the resistance acquired by genetically different strains of species to pollutants.
 
5.3 Bioindicators – bioindicators of various types of pollutants
Algae, macrophyte, zooplankton, insect, bivalve molluscs, gastropod, fish and amphibian are all considered as bioindicators. High tolerance of pollutants without death, wide abundance, distribution, long lifecycle, importance of the organism in food chain and easy sampling are all considered to be the characters of a perfect bioindicator.
In spite of the tremendous use of marine fauna in biomonitoring programs, photosynthetic organisms like algae (seaweeds) have been increasingly used as biodetectors to monitor xenobiotics in marine environments (Barreiro et al., 2002; Conti and Cecchetti, 2003; Conti et al., 2007). Microalgae has been referred to as green liver of oceans as they play central role in monitoring xenobiotics and pollutant cycling across the globe (Nystroan et al., 2002) due to their substantial biomass and comparatively large surface-to-volume ratio (Okamoto and Colepicolo, 1998).Seaweed species were used as bioindicator for toxic trace elements (Serfor-Armah, et al., 2001).
 
5.4 Biomarkers – significance, identified biomarkers
Biomarker can be defined as the measurements of body fluids, cells, or tissues that indicate in biochemical or cellular terms the presence of contaminants or the magnitude of the host response (Bodin et al., 2004). Biomarkers offer an effective early warning system in biomonitoring of aquatic environments. Biochemical, cellular, physiological and behavioral variations in the tissue, body fluids or of whole marine organisms could be well defined by biomarkers (Lam and Gray, 2003; Galloway et al., 2002, 2004).
 
The effect of pollutants on the cellular biochemistry of microalgae and the biochemical mechanisms that they use to detoxify pollutants are being well researched around the world (Conti et al., 2007; Barros et al., 2005).
 
Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) is considered as a very reliable biomarker of general stress in biomonitoring studies, as it is the main lysosomal response to a wide range of pollutants (Domouhtsidou and Dimitriadis, 2001). LMS test of digestive glands and Neutral Red Retention Assay (NRR) of the hemocyte lysosomes are evaluated to check the stability of lysosomal membrane, as both are influenced in marine bivalves by a wide range of stressors including temperature fluctuations (Petrovic et al., 2004; Bocchetti and Regoli, 2006; Moore et al., 2006; 2007). It has been reported that NRR measures the lysosomal content efflux into the cytosol which, in stressed mussels, reflects a physiological process after membrane damage and comparatively measures the capacity of cellular processes to adapt to stress conditions (Lowe and Pipe, 1994).
 
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has been measured by many researchers as exposure biochemical biomarker in the invertebrates in coastal waters and rivers (Moulton et al., 1996; Stien et al., 1998). Thus they have potential application in marine environment in screening the effects of pesticides and other pollutants in some vertebrate and invertebrate species. The responses of these biomarkers in digestive glands and hemocytes of horse-bearded mussel Modiolus barbatus during thermal stress was monitored (Vasileios et al, 2012). Results of several other works have also reported the connection between responses of biomarkers in marine molluscs to thermal stress (Domouhtsidou and Dimitriadis, 2001; Kagley et al., 2003; Petrovic et al., 2004; Bocchetti and Regoli, 2006; Moore et al., 2006a, 2007).
 
The use of biomarkers could provide useful information about the higher critical lethal ambient temperatures (Tcmax) initiating irreversible cellular damage in the tissues of marine bivalves during perturbation of its ecosystem because of global warming (Vasileios et al., 2012).
 
Another study in line with previous investigation,point outs the histochemical localization of N-acetyl-b-hexozaminidase (Hex), acid phosphatase (AcP) and b-glucuronidase (b-Gus) in the digestive gland of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Raftopoulou and Dimitriadis, 2012) The results indicate appreciable alterations of the above parameters in large-sized mussels, supporting their greater influence by the environmental factors, in relation to small-sized ones. The application of cytochrome P 4501A, DNA integrity, Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and Metallothionein as molecular biomarkers for marine pollution monitoring are well documented in earlier studies (Sarkar et al., 2006). Some of the marine biomarkers identified by various researchers are given in the table 3.
 
Mussel/bivalves and other lower level organisms have shown molecular level variations against different pollutants. Most of the metals are affecting the acetylcholinesterase activity as well as Metallothionein induction of these organisms. Genotoxic substances like persistent organic pollutants affects the DNA integrity of the organisms.
 
5.5 Isotopes in marine pollution monitoring
Nuclear and isotopic techniques offers the diagnostic and dynamic information needed to identify the source of contamination, its history of accumulation, its environmental pathways and its impact on the marine environment.
                                                                                         
Stable C, N and H isotope ratios and Carbon-14 isotopes are being used for the identification of sources of pollutants like PAHs, PCBs, Hydrocarbons/oil contamination and waste disposal from land (Mckinney, 2012; Carballeira, 2012). C14 can also be used for the isotope labelling studies to understand the fate of contaminants. Stable isotope ratio measurements of chlorine and oxygen have been applied for discrimination of different perchlorate (ClO4) sources in the environment. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes are mainly used to track biomagnification of persistent bioaccumulative toxic pollutants (PBTs) (Aubail et al., 2011; Cardona-Marek et al., 2009; Cabana and Rasmussen, 1994). This is due to difference in fractionation with trophic levels, these two elements give complementary information. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (15N/14N) increase at every step in the food chain because stable N isotope concentration increase 3-4‰ per trophic level and thus indicating trophic level, while stable carbon isotope is enriched slightly by about 1‰ per trophic level and can provide information on the primary carbon sources into food webs (Michner and Schell, 1994). The isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is used for the detection of isotope ratios.
 
Lavoie et al. (2010) studied the transfer of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a Gulf of St. Lawrence food web to the trophic structure, from primary consumers to seabirds, using stable nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope analysis. He observed that biomagnification power were greater for pelagic and benthopelagic species compared to benthic species whereas the opposite trend was observed for levels at the base of the food chain.
 
Isotopes such as C-14, Cs137and Pb210 can be used to reconstruct the changes in pollution over time in the marine sediments, corals etc. which stores information on the pollution during the geological past. This will enable us to understand and compare the actual impacts of the pollutants.  
 
6 Conclusion
Marine environment is constantly being deteriorated due to human activity. Therefore, it is an emergency need to evaluate sensitive ecotoxicological endpoints and continuously monitoring pollutants, in order to detect the toxic effects of compounds in the complexity of marine environments. There are various monitoring programmes organised by each countries, a group of countries or an international organisation. The importance of understanding the marine environment and the xenobiotics that deteriorate its quality is very vital as more than 70% of the earth‘s surface is covered by the interconnected bodies of water.
 
Acknowledgement
The Authors acknowledges the positive comments and suggestions by anonymous reviewers.
 
Reference
Addison R.F., 1996, The use of biological effects monitoring in studies of marine pollution, Environmental Reviews, 4: 225–37,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/a96-012
 
Agah H., Leermakers M., Elskens,M., Fatemi M. R., and Baeyens W., 2007, Total Mercury and Methyl Mercury Concentrations in Fish from the Persian Gulf and the CaspiannSea, Water Air Soil Pollution, 181: 95–105,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11270-006-9281-0
 
Alava J.J., Salazar S., Cruz M., Jimenez-Uzcategui G., Villegas-Amtmann S., Pae´z-Rosas D., Costa D.P., Ross P.S., Ikonomou M.G., and Gobas F.A.P.C., 2011, DDT Strikes Back: Galapagos Sea Lions Face Increasing Health Risks, AMBIO (2011), 40:425–430, DOI 10.1007/s13280-011-0136-6,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-011-0136-6
 
Alonso M. B.,  Marigo J., Bertozzi C. P., Santos M. C. O., Taniguchi S., and Montone R. C., 2010, Occurrence of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from Ubatuba and Baixada Santista, São Paulo Brazil, lajam , 8(1-2): 123-130
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-011-0136-6
 
Andrady A.L., 2003, Common plastics materials. In: Andrady, A.L. (Ed.), Plastics and the Environment, Wiley, 99,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0471721557, PMid:12659541
 
Ashton K., Holmes L., and Turner A., 2010, Association of metals with plastic production pellets in the marine environment, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60: 2050–2055,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.07.014, PMid:20696443
 
Aubail A., Teilmann J., Dietz R., Riget F. F., Harkonen T., Karlsson O., Rosing-Asvid A., and Caurant F., 2011, Investigation of mercury concentrations in fur of phocid seals using stable isotopes as tracers of trophic levels and geographical regions, Polar Biology, 34: 1411–1420,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00300-011-0996-z
 
Bachoon D.S., Hodson R.E., and Araujo R., 2001, Microbial community assessment in oil-impacted salt marsh sediment microcosms by traditional and nucleic acid-based indices, Journal of Microbiological Methods, 46: 37–49,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7012(01)00260-3
 
Backor M., Fahselt D., and Wu C.T., 2004, Free proline content is positively correlated with copper tolerance of the lichen photobiont Trebouxia erici (Chlorophyta), Plant Science, 167: 151–157,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.03.012
 
Backor M., Gibalova A., Budova J., Mikes J., and Solar P., 2006, Cadmium-induced stimulation of stress-protein hsp70 in lichen photobiont Trebouxia erici, Plant  Growth Regulation, 50: 159–164,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10725-006-9112-8
 
Backor M., Pawlik-Skowronska B., Budova J., and Skowronski T., 2007, Response to copper and cadmium stress in wild-type and copper tolerant strains of the lichen alga Trebouxia erici: metal accumulation, toxicity and non-protein thiols, Plant Growth Regulation, 52: 17–27,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10725-007-9173-3
 
Baird D.J., Maltby L., Greig-Smith P.W., and Douben, P.E.T., 1996, Ecotoxicology: Ecological Dimensions, Chapman and Hall, London,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1541-1
 
Barnes D.K.A., Galgani F., Thompson R.C., and Barlaz M., 2009, Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364: 1985–1998
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0205, PMid:19528051 PMCid:PMC2873009
 
Baross J.A., Hanus F.J., and Morita R.Y., 1975, Survival of Human Enteric and Other Sewage Microorganisms under Simulated Deep-Sea Conditions, Applied Microbiology, 30 (2): 309-318,
PMid:169733 PMCid:PMC187172
 
Barreiro R., Picado L., and Real C., 2002, Biomonitoring heavy metals in estuaries: a field comparison of two brown algae species inhabiting upper estuarine reaches, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 75: 121–134,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014479612811, PMid:12002281
 
Barros M.P., Pinto E., Sigaud-Kutner T.C.S., Cardozo K.H.M., and Colepicolo P., 2005, Rhythmicity and oxidative/nitrosative stress in algae, Biological Rhythm Research, 36:67–82,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09291010400028666
 
Bartolome L., Navarro P., Raposo J.C., Arana G., Zuloaga O., Etxebarria N., and Soto M., 2010, Occurrence and distribution of metals in mussels from the cantabrian coast, Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, doi: 10.1007/s00244-010-9476-7,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-010-9476-7
 
Bellas J., Berias R., Carlos J.C., O-balsa M., and Ndez N.F., 2005, Toxicity of Organic Compounds to Marine Invertebrate Embryos and Larvae: A Comparison between the Sea Urchin Embryogenesis Bioassay and Alternative Test Species, Ecotoxicology, 14: 337–353,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-004-6370-y, PMid:15943109
 
Bilandzic N., Dokic M., and Sedak M., 2011, Metal content determination in four fish species from the Adriatic Sea, Food Chemistry, 124: 1005–1010,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.07.060
 
Bocchetti R., and Regoli F., 2006, Seasonal variability of oxidative biomarkers, lysosomal parameters, metallothioneins and peroxisomal enzymes in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from Adriatic Sea, Chemosphere, 65: 913-921,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.03.049, PMid:16678235
 
Bodin N., Burgeot T., Stanisiere J.Y., Bocquene G., Menard D., Minier C., Boutet I., Amat A., Cherel Y., and Budzinski H., 2004, Seasonal variations of a battery of biomarkers and physiological indices for the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis transplanted into the northwest Mediterranean Sea, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 138(4): 411–427,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2004.04.009, PMid:15536049
 
Browne M.A., Galloway T.S., and Thompson R.C., 2010, Spatial patterns of plastic debris along estuarine shorelines Environmental Science & Technology, 44: 3404–3409,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es903784e, PMid:20377170
 
Burger J., and Gochfeld M., 2004, Marine Birds as Sentinels of Environmental Pollution Eco Health, 263-274
 
Cabana G., and Rasmussen J. B., 1994, Modelling food chain structure and contaminant bioaccumulation using stable nitrogen isotopes, Nature, 372: 255–257,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/372255a0
 
Cabon J.Y., Giamarchi P., and Floch S.L., 2010, A study of marine pollution caused by the release of metals into seawater following acid spills, Marine Pollution Bulletin,60(7):998-1004,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.02.002, PMid:20206942
 
Calatayud M., Devesa V., Virseda J.R., Barbera R., Montoro R., and Vélez D., 2012, Mercury and selenium in fish and shellfish: Occurrence, bioaccessibility and uptake by Caco-2 cells, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50 (8): 2696-2702,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.05.028, PMid:22634291
 
Carballeira C., Viana I.G., and Carballeira A., 2012, δ15N values of macro-algae as an indicator of the potential presence of waste disposal from land-based marine fish farms, Journal of Applied Phycology, DOI 10.1007/s10811-012-9843-z,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10811-012-9843-z
 
Carballo M., Arbelo M., Esperón F., Mendez M., Torre A., and Munoz M.J., 2008, Organochlorine residues in the blubber and liver of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded in the Canary Islands, North Atlantic Ocean, Environmental Toxicology, 23(2) : 200–210,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.20322, PMid:18214918
 
Cardona-Marek T., Knott K. K., Meyer B. E., and  Hara T. M., 2009, Mercury concentrations in southern Beaufort Sea polar bears: Variation based on stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 28: 1416–1424,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/08-557.1, PMid:19226182
 
Chapman P.M., 2002, Integrating toxicology and ecology: putting the ‘‘eco’’ into ecotoxicology, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44: 7–15,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00253-3
 
Chapman P.M., 1995,  Ecotoxicology and pollution-key issues, Marine Pollution Bulletin. 31: 167–177,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0025-326X(95)00101-R
 
Chen X., Zhou Y., Yang D., Zhao H., Wang L., and Yuan X., 2012, CYP4 mRNA expression in marine polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis in response to petroleum hydrocarbon and deltamethrin, Marine pollution bulletin,
http:// dx.doi.org /10.1016/j
 
Claessens M., Meester S.D., Landuyt L.V., Clerck K.D., and Janssen C.R., 2011, Occurrence and distribution of microplastics in marine sediments along the Belgian coast, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62:2199–2204,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.06.030, PMid:21802098
 
Claisse D., Cossa D., Bretaudeau-Sanjuan J., Touchard G., and Bombled B., 2001, Methylmercury in molluscs along the French coast, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42: 329–332,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00036-4
 
Cole M., lindeque P., Halsband C., and Galloway T.S., 2011, Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: A Review, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62: 2588-2597
 
Collen J., Ekdahl A., Abrahamsson K., and  Pedersen M., 1994, The involvement of hydrogen peroxide in the production of volatile halogenated compounds by (Meristiella gelidium), Phytochemistry, 36: 1197–1202,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)89637-5
 
Conti M.E., and Cecchetti G., 2003, A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas, Environmental Research, 93: 99–112,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00012-4
 
Conti M.E., Iacobucci M., and Cecchetti G., 2007, A biomonitoring study: trace metals in seagrass, algae and molluscs in a marine reference ecosystem (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea), International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 29: 308–332,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJEP.2007.012808
 
Crain C.M., Halpern B.S., Beck M.W., and Kappel C.V., 2009, Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1162: 39–62,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04496.x, PMid:19432644
 
Daane L.L., Harjono I., Zylstra G.J., and Haggblom M.M., 2001, Isolation and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of salt marsh plants. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67:2683–2691,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.67.6.2683-2691.2001, PMid:11375181 PMCid:PMC92925
 
Dachs J., Lohmann W.A., Ockenden L., Mejanelle S.J., Eisenreich and K.C. Jones., 2002, Oceanic biogeochemical controls on global dynamics of persistent organic pollutants, Environmental Science & Technology, 36: 4229–4237,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es025724k, PMid:12387392
 
Dalton T., and Jin D., 2010, Extent and frequency of vessel oil spills in US marine protected areas, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(11): 1939-1945,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.07.036, PMid:20797735
 
Davodi M., Abbas Esmaili-Sari A., and Bahramifarr N., 2011, Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in some edible fish species from the Shadegan Marshes (Iran), Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 74 (3) : 294–300,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.07.045, PMid:21168210
 
 Brito A.P.X., Takahashi S., Ueno D., Iwata H., Tanabe S., and Kubodera, T., 2002, Organochlorine and butyltin residues in deep-sea organisms collected from the western North Pacific, off-Tohoku, Japan, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 45: 348–361,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00100-5
 
Torre D.L., Fernando R., Lucrecia F., and Alfredo S., 2005, Biomarkers of a native fish species (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus) application to the water toxicity assessment of a peri-urban polluted river of Argentina, Chemosphere, 59(4): 577–583,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.12.039, PMid:15788181
 
Debelius B.,  Forja J. M., DelValls T. A., and Lubian, L. M., 2009, Toxicity of copper in natural marine picoplankton populations, Ecotoxicology, 18:1095–1103,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-009-0377-3, PMid:19597988
 
Dimitriadis V.K., Gougoula C., Anestis A., Portner H.O., and Michaelidis B., 2012, Monitoring the biochemical and cellular responses of marine bivalves during thermal stress by using biomarkers, Marine Environmental Research, 73: 70-77,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2011.11.004, Mid:22119541
 
Domouhtsidou G.P., and Dimitriadis V.K., 2001, Lysosomal and lipid alterations in the digestive gland of mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.) as biomarkers of environmental stress, Environmental Pollution, 115: 123-137,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00233-5
Doney S.C., 2010, The growing human footprint on coastal and open-ocean biogeochemistry, Science, 328: 1512–1516,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1185198, PMid:20558706
 
Donohue M., Boland R. C., Sramek C. M., and Antonelis G. A., 2001, Derelict fishing gear in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands: diving surveys and debris removal in 1999 confirm threat to coral reef ecosystems, Mar. Pollut. Bull, 42: 1301–1312,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00139-4
 
Dorneles P.R., Lailson-Brito J., Dirtu A.C., Weijs L., Azevedo A.F., Torres J.P.M., Malm, O., Neels H., Blust R., Das K., and Covaci A., 2010, Anthropogenic and naturally-produced organobrominated compounds in marine mammals from Brazil. Environment International, 36 (1): 60–67,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2009.10.001, PMid:19864024
 
Everaarts J.M., and Sarkar A., 1996, DNA damage as a biomarker of marine pollution: strand breaks in sea1stars (Asterias Rubens) from the North Sea, Water Science Technology, 34(7–8): 157-162,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0273-1223(96)00739-1
 
Feris K.P., Hristova K., Gebreyesus B., Mackay D., and Scow K.M., 2004, A shallow BTEX and MTBE contaminated aquifer supports a diverse microbial community, Microbial Ecology, 48: 589–600,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-004-0001-2, PMid:15696392
 
Fernandez B., Campillo J.A., Martınez-Gomez C., and Benedicto J., 2010, Antioxidant responses in gills of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as biomarkers of environmental stress along the Spanish Mediterranean coast, Aquatic Toxicology, doi:10.1016/j.aquatox. 2010.04.013
Fowler S.W., 2011, 210Po in the marine environment with emphasis on its behaviour within the biosphere,  Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 102 (5): 448–461,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2010.10.008, PMid:21074911
 
Frias J.E., Gil M.N., Esteves J.L., Borboroglu P.G., Kane O.J., Smith J.R., and Boersma P. D., 2012, Mercury levels in feathers of Magellanic penguins,

Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64(6): 1265-1269,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.02.024, PMid:22465054
 
Fuentes-Rios D.O., Rodrigo R., Anny Mendoza G., Gavila´n J.F., and Barra R., 2005, EROD activity and biliary fluorescence in Schroederichthys chilensis (Guichenot 1848): Biomarkers of PAH exposure in coastal environments of the South Pacific Ocean, Chemosphere, 61(2): 192–199,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.02.062, PMid:16168742
 
Galanopoulou S., Vgenopoulos A., and Conispoliatis N., 2005, DDTs and other chlorinated organic pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls pollution in the surface sediments of Keratsini harbour, Saronikos Gulf, Greece, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50 (5): 520-525,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.11.043, PMid:15907494
 
Galloway T.S., Brown R.J., Browne M.A., Dissanayake A., Lowe D., Jones M.B., and Depledge M.H., 2004, A multibiomarker approach to environmental assessment. Environmental Science and Technology, 38 (6):1723-1731,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es030570+,PMid:15074681
 
Galloway T.S., Sanger R.C., Smith K.L., Fillmann G., Ford T.E., Readman J.W., and Depledge M.H., 2002,  Rapid assessment of marine pollution using multiple biomarkers and chemical immunoassays, Environmental Science and Technology, 36: 2219-2226,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es010300w, PMid:12038833
 
Giani M., Rampazzo F., Berto D., Maggi C., Mao A., Horvat M., Emili A., and Covelli S., 2012, Bioaccumulation of mercury in reared and wild Ruditapes philippinarum of a Mediterranean lagoon, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf science,,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2012.05.031
 
Gioia R., Dachs J., Nizzetto L., Berrojalbiz N., Galban C., Vento S.D., Mejanelle L., and Jones K.C., 2011, Persistent Pollution-Past, Present and Future, Springer-Verlag, 111-139
Gregory M. R., and Andrady A. L., 2003, Plastics in the marine environment. In: Andrady, A.L. (Ed.), Plastics and the Environment, Wiley, 379–402,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0471721557.ch10
 
Gregory M. R., 2009, Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings—entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 364: 2013–2025,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0265
 
Halpern B.S., Walbridge S., Selkoe K.A., Kappel C.V., Micheli F., Dagrosa C., Bruno J.F., Casey K.S., Ebert C., Fox H.E., Fujita R., Heinemann D., Lenihan H.S., Madin E.M.P., Perry M.T., Selig E.R., Spalding M., Steneck R., and Watson R., 2008,  A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems, Science, 319(5865): 948–952,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1149345
 
Hayteas D.L. and Duffield D.A., 2000, High Levels of PCB and p,p0- DDE Found in the Blubber of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca), Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40 (6): 558-561,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00016-3
 
HELCOM (or Helsinki Commission), 2002. Response Manual, Case histories of marine chemical accidents, vol. 2, Annex 3
Hirose K., 2012, Fushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident: summary of regional radioactive deposition monitoring results, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 111 : 13–17,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.09.003, PMid:22119330
 
Hirose K., 2006, Chemical speciation of trace metals in seawater: a review, Analytical Sciences , 22: 1055–1061,
http://dx.doi.org/10.2116/analsci.22.1055 PMid:16896242
 
Hopkin S.P., 1993, In situ biological monitoring of pollution in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In CALOW, P.  (ed.),  Handbook of Ecotoxicology, 1: 397–427
 
Hunt J., Birch G., Warne M.S.J., and Krassoi R., 2009, Evaluation of a Methodology for Toxicity Testing of Volatile Chlorinated Hydrocarbons on Marine Organisms, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 82: 743–748,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9678-8, PMid:19283327
 
Hutzinger O., Safe S., and Zitko V., 1974, The Chemistry of PCBs.  CRC Press, 269 Ireland H.E., Harding S., Bonwick G., Jones M., Smith C., and Williams J., 2004, Evaulation of heat shock protein 70 as a biomarker of environmental stress in Fucus seratus and Lemna minor. Biomarkers 9: 139–155
 
Islam M.D. S., and Tanaka M., 2004, Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems including coastal and marine fisheries and approach for management: a review and synthesis, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48: 624–649,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2003.12.004, PMid:15041420
 
Jiang S.C., and Paul J.H., 1996, Occurrence of Lysogenic Bacteria in Marine Microbial Communities as Determined by Prophage Induction, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 42: 27-38,
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps142027
 
Jiang Q.T., Lee T.K.M., Chen K., Wong H.L., Zheng J.S., Giesy J.P., Lo K.K.W.,Yamashita N., and Lam P.K.S., 2005, Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China, Environ. Pollut, 136: 155–165,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2004.09.028, PMid:15809117
 
Kagley A.N., Snider R.G., Krishnakumar P.K., and Casillas E., 2003, Assessment of seasonal variability of cytochemical responses to contaminant exposure in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis (Complex), Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 44: 43-52,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-002-1303-3, PMid:12434218
 
Kayhan F.E., 2007, Mercury (Hg) levels in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) on Bosphorus, Istanbul, Turkey, International Journal of Biological Sciences, 7: 369–373,
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2007.369.373
 
Kemper C., Gibbs P., Obendorf D., Marvanek S., and Lenghaus C., 1994, A review of heavy metal and organochlorine levels in marine mammals in Australia, The Science of the Total Environment, 154: 129-139,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(94)90083-3
 
Khan M.F., and Wesley S.D., 2012, Radionuclides in resident and migratory fishes of a wedge bank region: Estimation of dose to human beings, South India, Marine pollution bulletin,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.06.010
 
Kucuksezgin F., Kontas A., and Uluturhan E., 2011, Evaluations of heavy metal pollution in sediment and Mullus barbatus from the Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean) during 1997–2009. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62: 1562–1571,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.05.012, PMid:21658732
 
Kwon Y.K., Jung Y.S., Park J.C., Seo J., Choi M.S., and Hwang G.S., 2012, Characterizing the effect of heavy metal contamination on marine mussels using metabolomics, Marine pollution bulletin,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.06.012,
 
La M.M.G., Leifer I., Bergmann S., Vandewerfhorst L.C., and Holden P.A., 2004, Bacterial diversity in marine hydrocarbon-seep sediments, Environmental Microbiology, 6(8): 799– 808,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2004.00613.x, PMid:15250882
 
Labare M.L., Coon S.L., Matthias C., and Weiner R.M., 1997, Magnification of Tributyl Tin Toxicity to Oyster Larvae in biofilms of Shewanella Colwelliana, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63 (10): 4107-4110,
PMid:9327578 PMCid:PMC168725
 
Lacerda L.D., and Fitzgerald W.F., 2001, Biogeochemistry of mercury in wetlands, Wetlands Ecology and Management 9: 291-293,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1011125310794
 
Laist D. W., 1997, Impacts of marine debris: entanglement of marine life in marine debris including a comprehensive list of species with entanglement and ingestion records. In Marine debris: sources, impacts, and solutions (Coe J. M., Rogers D. B., editors.), 99–140 New York, NY: Springer-Verlag,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-8486-1_10
 
Lam P.K.S., and Gray J.S., 2003, The use of biomarkers in environmental monitoring programmes, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46: 182-186,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(02)00449-6
 
Lavoie R.A., Hebert C.E., Rail J.F., Braune B.M., Yumvihoze, E., Hill L.G., and Lean D.R.S., 2010, Trophic structure and mercury distribution in a Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada) food web using stable isotope analysis, Science of the Total Environment 408 (22): 5529–5539,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.07.053, PMid:20810146
 
Leinio S., and Lehtonen  K.K.,  2005, Seasonal variability in biomarkers in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Macoma balthica from the northern Baltic Sea. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C, Toxicology & Pharmacology, 140(3–4): 408–421,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2005.04.005, PMid:15921963
 
Letcher R. J., Bustnes J.O., Dietz R., Jenssen B. M., Jorgensen E. H., Sonne C., Verreault J., Vijayan M.M., and Gabrielsen G.W., 2010, Exposure and effects assessment of persistent organohalogen contaminants in arctic wildlife and fish, Science of The Total Environment, 408: 2995–3043,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.038, PMid:19910021
 
Lithner D., LarssonA., Dave G., 2011, Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition Science of the Total Environment, 409: 3309–3324,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.04.038, PMid:21663944
 
Lotze H.K., Lenihan H.S., Bourque B.J., Bradbury R.H., Cooke R.G., Kay M.C., Kidwell S.M., Kirby M.X., Peterson C.H., and Jackson, J.B.C., 2006,  Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas, Science, 312: 1806–1809,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1128035, PMid:16794081
 
Lowe D.M., and Pipe R.K., 1994, Contaminant induced lysosomal membrane damage in marine mussel digestive cells: an in vitro study, Aquatic Toxicology, 30: 357-365,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-445X(94)00045-X
 
Marais M., Armitage N., 2004, The measurement and reduction of urban litter entering stormwater drainage systems: paper 2—strategies for reducing the litter in the stormwater drainage systems, Water SA , 30: 469–482,
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v30i4.5100
 
Marchand M., 2003, Accidental marine pollution beyond the crude oil, chemicals and other spills at sea, annals of mines, Responsibility and Environment, 70: 92
 
Marino K.B.,  Hoover-Miller A., Conlon S., Prewitt J., Shea S.K., 2011, Quantification of total mercury in liver and heart tissue of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from Alaska USA,  Environmental Research, 111 (8): 1107-1115,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2011.07.010, PMid:21867998
 
Matozzo V., Tomei A., Marin M.G., 2005, Acetylcholinesterase as a biomarker of exposure to neurotoxic compounds in the clam Tapes philippinarum from the Lagoon of Venice, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50 (12): 1686–1693
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.07.011
 
Mendil D., Demirci Z., Tuzen M., and Soylak M., 2012, Seasonal investigation of trace element contents in commercially valuable fish species from the Black sea, Turkey, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48: 865–870
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.12.023
 
Meyer J.N., 2010, QPCR: a tool for analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage in ecotoxicology, Ecotoxicology, DOI 10.1007/s10646-009-0457-4, 19: 804–811
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-009-0457-4
 
Michner R.H., and Schell D.M., 1994, Stable isotope ratios as tracers in marine aquatic food webs, Stable isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science, 138-157
 
Mohan M., Augustine T., Jayasooryan K.K., Shylesh C.M.S., and Ramasamy E.V., 2012, Fractionation of selected metals in the sediments of Cochin estuary and Periyar River, Southwest coast of India, The Environmentalist, DOI 10.1007/s10669-012-9399-0
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10669-012-9399-0
 
Moon H.B., Kim H.S., Choi M.K., Yua J., and Choi H.G., 2009, Human health risk of polychlorinated biphenyls and organo chlorine pesticides resulting from fish and mussel consumption in South Korea, 2005–2007, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47: 1819–1825
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.04.028
 
Moore C.J., 2008, Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat, Environmental Research, 108: 131–139
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2008.07.025
 
Moore M.N., Icarus., Allen J., and McVeigh, A., 2006, Environmental prognostics: an integrated model supporting lysosomal stress responses as predictive biomarkers of animal health status, Marine Environmental Research, 61: 278-304
 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2005.10.005
 
Moore M.N., Viarengo A., Donkin P., and Hawkins, J.S.A., 2007, Autophagic and lysosomal reactions to stress in the hepatopancreas of blue mussels. Aquatic Toxicology, 84: 80–91
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.06.007
 
Moppert Xavier., Le Costaouec Tinaig., Raguenes Gerard., Courtois Anthony., Simon-Colin Christelle., Crassous Philippe., Costa Bernard., and Guezennec Jean., 2009, Investigations into the uptake of copper, iron and selenium by a highly sulphated bacterial exopolysaccharide isolated from microbial mats, Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 36(4): 599-604
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10295-009-0529-8
 
Morlon H., Fortin C., Floriani M., Adam C., GarnierL-aplace J., and Boudou A., 2005, Toxicity of selenite in the unicellular green alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii): comparison between effects at the population and sub-cellular level, Aquatic Toxicology, 73: 65–78
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2005.02.007
 
Moulton C.A., Fleming W.J., and Purnell C.E., 1996, Effects of two cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides on freshwater mussels. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 15: 131-137
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620150210
 
Mourgaud Y., Martinez E., Geffard A., Andral B., Stanisie`re J.Y., and Amiard J.C., 2002, Metallothionein concentration in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as a biomarker of response to metal contamination: validation in the field, Biomarkers, 7(6): 479–490
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1354750021000034528
 
Nikolopoulou M., and Kalogerakis N., 2009, Biostimulation strategies for fresh and chronically polluted marine environments with petroleum hydrocarbons, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 84 (6): 802–807
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jctb.2182
 
Nwanyanwu C.E., and Abu G.O., 2010, Invitro effects of petroleum refinery waste water on dehydrogenase activity in marine bacterial strain, doi: 10. 4136/ ambi-agua,133
 
Nwanyanwu C.E., and Abu G.O., 2010, Invitro effects of petroleum refinery waste water on dehydrogenase activity in marine bacterial strain.doi: 10. 4136/ ambi-agua.133
 
Ocean Conservancy., 2007, International Coastal Cleanup Report 2006: a world of difference. Washington, DC, USA: Ocean Conservancy
 
Okamoto O.K., and Colepicolo P., 1998, Response of superoxide dismutase to pollutant metal stress in the marine dinoflagellate (Gonyaulax polyedra), Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 199C: 67– 73
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0742-8413(97)00192-8
 
Ozden O., Ulusoy S., and Erkan N., 2010, Study on the behavior of the trace metal and macro minerals in Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator species: the case of Marmara Sea, Turkey. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, 5: 407–412
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00003-009-0544-8
 
Pelletier E., Delille D., and Delille B., 2004, Crude oil bioremediation in sub-Antarctic intertidal sediments: chemistry and toxicity of oiled residues, Marine Environmental Research, 57(4):  311–327
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2003.07.001
 
Petrovic S., Ozretic B., Krajnovic-Ozretic, M., and Bobinac, D., 2001, Lysosomal membrane stability and metallothionein in digestive gland of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.) as biomarkers in a field study, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42(12): 373–1378
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(01)00167-9
 
Petrovic S., Semencic L., Ozretic B., and Ozreti M., 2004, Seasonal variations of physiological and cellular biomarkers and their use in the biomonitoring of north adriatic coastal waters (Croatia), Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49: 713–720
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.05.004
 
Pisoni M., Cogotzi, L., Frigeri A., Corsi I., Bonacci S., Iacocca A., Lancini L., Mastrototaro F., Focardi S., and Svelto M., 2004, DNA adducts, benzo(a) pyrene monooxygenase activity, and lysosomal membrane stability in Mytilus galloprovincialis from different areas in Taranto coastal waters (Italy), Environmental Research, 96(2): 63–75
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2004.02.011
 
Polak-Juszczak L., 2012, Bioaccumulation of mercury in the trophic chain of flatfish from the Baltic Sea, Chemosphere.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.05.057
 
Potrykus J., Albalat A., Pempkowiak J., Porte C., 2003, Content and pattern of organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs and DDT) in blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) from the southern Baltic Sea, OCEANOLOGIA, 45 (1): 337–355.
 
Qiu Y.W., Zhang G., Guo L.L., Cheng H.R., Wang W.X., Li X.D., and OnyxWai W.H., 2009, Current status and historical trends of organochlorine pesticides in the ecosystem of Deep Bay, South China Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 85:265-272
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2009.08.010
 
Raftopoulou E.K., and Dimitriadis V.K., 2012, Aspects of the digestive gland cells of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, in relation to lysosomal enzymes, lipofuscin presence and shell size: contribution in the assessment of marine pollution biomarkers, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64: 182- 188
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.12.017
 
Raspor B., Dragun Z., Erk M., Ivankovic D., and Pavii J., 2004, Is the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis a tissue of choice for estimating cadmium exposure by means of metallothioneins Science of the Total Environment, 333(1–3): 99–108
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.05.008
 
Roesijadi G., Hansen K.M., Unger M.E., 1997, Concentration–response relationships for Cd, Cu, and Zn and metallothionein mRNA induction in larvae of Crassostrea virginica, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology, 118(3): 267–270
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0742-8413(97)00179-5
 
Ryan P.G., Moore C.J., van Franeker J.A., and Moloney C.L., 2009, Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment, Phil. Trans. R. Soc, B 364: 1999–2012
Ryan P.G., and Swanepoel D., 1996, Cleaning beaches: sweeping litter under the carpet, S. Afr. J. Sci, 92: 275–276
Sarkar A., 2006, Biomarkers of marine pollution and bioremediationm, Ecotoxicology, 15: 331-332
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-006-0073-5, PMid:16673163
 
Sarkar A., Ray D., Shrivastava A.N., and Sarker S., 2006, Molecular Biomarkers: Their significance and application in marine pollution monitoring, Ecotoxicology, 15: 333-340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-006-0069-1, PMid:16676218
 
Schroda M., Vallon O., Wollman F.A., and Beck C.F., 1999, A chloroplast-targeted heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) contributes to the photoprotection and repair of photosystem II during and after photoinhibition, Plant Cell, 11:1165–1178
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3870807, PMid:10368186 PMCid:PMC144243
 
Serfor Armah Y., Nyarko BJB., Osae E.K., Carboo D., Anim-sampon S., and Seku F., 2001, Rhodophyta seaweed species as bioindicators for monitoring toxic element pollutants in the marine ecosystems of Ghana, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 127: 243–253
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005271005093
 
Siripornadulsil S., Traina S., Verma D.P.S., and Sayre R.T., 2002, Molecular mechanisms of proline-mediated tolerance to toxic heavy metals in transgenic microalgae, Plant Cell, 14: 2837–2847
http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.004853, PMid:12417705 PMCid:PMC152731
 
Spada L., Annicchiarico C., Cardellicchio N., Giandomenico S., and Leo A.D., 2012, Mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in Mediterranean seafood and surface sediments, intake evaluation and risk for consumers, International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Volume 215, Issue 3, April 2012, 418-426
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2011.09.003
 
Stankovic  S., and Jovic M., 2012, Health risks of heavy metals in the Mediterranean mussels as seafood, Environmental Chemistry Letters, 10:119–130DOI 10.1007/s10311-011-0343-1
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10311-011-0343-1
 
Stankovic S., Jovic M., Stankovic A.R., and Katsikas L., 2011, Heavy metals in seafood mussels. Risks for human health. In: Lichtfouse E, Schwarzbauer J, Robert D (eds) Environmental chemistry for a sustainable world: Volume 1: Nanotechnology and Health Risk, Chapter 9, Springer, Netherlands, p 64. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2442-6_9
 
Syvitski J.P.M., Vorosmarty C.J., Kettner, A.J., and Green P., 2005, Impact of humans on the flux of terrestrial sediment to the global coastal ocean, Science 308 (5720): 376–380
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1109454
Takahashi S., Hayashi S., Kasai R., Tanabe S., and Kubodera T., 2001, Contamination of deep-sea organisms from Tosa Bay, Japan by organochlorine and butyltin compounds, National Science Museum Monographs, 20: 363–380
 
Tanabe S., Ramu K., Mochizuki H., Miyasaka H., Okuda N., Muraoka M., Kajiwara N., Takahashi S., and Kubodera T., 2005, Contamination and distribution of persistent organochlorine and organotin compounds in deep-sea organisms from East China Sea, National Science Museum Monographs, 29: 453–476
 
Torres M.A., Barros M.P., Campos S.C.G., Pinto  E, Rajamani S., Sayre R.T., and Colepicolo P., 2008, "Biochemical biomarkers in algae and marine pollution a review." Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 71: 1-15
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2008.05.009, PMid:18599121
 
Torres J.P.M., J. Lailson-Brito G.C., Saldanha P., Dorneles C.E.A., Silva O., Malm, J.R., Guimaraes, Azeredo A., 2009, Persistent toxic substances in the Brazilian Amazon, Contamination of man and the environment, Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 20:1175–1179
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532009000600024
 
Tourinho P.S., Ivar do Sul J.A., and Fillmann G., 2010, Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60: 396
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.10.013, PMid:19931101
 
Trielli F., Amaroli, A., Sifredi, F., Marchi, B., Falugi C., and Corrado M.U.D., 2007, Effects of xenobiotic compounds on the cell activities of Euplotes crassus, a single-cell eukaryotic test organism for the study of the pollution of marine sediments, Aquatic Toxicology, 83: 272–283
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2007.05.002, PMid:17582519
 
Tuzen M., 2009, Toxic and essential trace elemental contents in fish species from the Black Sea, Turkey, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47: 1785–1790
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.04.029
 
Ullrich S.M., Tanton T.W., and Abdrashitova S.A., 2001, Mercury in the aquatic environment, a review of factors affecting methylation, Critical Review of Environmental Science and Technology, 31(3): 241–293
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20016491089226
 
UNEP., 2003,Global Assessment of Persistent Toxic Substances, 207pp. UNEP/GEF, Geneve,
 
UNEP (2015) Biodegradable plastics and marine litter. Misconceptions, concerns and impacts on marine Environment. Report presented during the 20th Anniversary of the Global programme of action for the protection of the marine environment from land based activities.
 
UNEP 2006, Action Urged to Avoid Deep Trouble in the Deep Seas
 
UNESCO, 2015, Facts and figures on marine pollution,van den Berg H., 2009, Global status of DDT and its alternatives for use in vector control to prevent disease, Environmental Health Perspectives, 117: 1656–1663
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0900785, PMid:20049114 PMCid:PMC2801202
 
Velando A., Munilla I., L_opez-Alonso M., Freire J., and Perez C., 2010, EROD activity and stable isotopes in seabirds to disentangle marine food web contamination after the Prestige oil spill, Environmental Pollution, 158: 1275–1280
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2010.01.029, PMid:20189696
 
Vieira C., Morais S., Ramos S., Delerue-Matos C., and Oliveira M.B.P.P., 2011, Mercury, cadmium, lead and arsenic levels in three pelagic fish species from the Atlantic Ocean, Intra- and inter-specific variability and human health risks for consumption, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 49 (4): 923-932
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.12.016, PMid:21193008
 
Voorspoels S., Covaci A., Maervoet J., Meester I.D., and Schepens P., 2004, Levels and profiles of PCBs and OCPs in marine benthic species from the Belgian North Sea and the Western Scheldt Estuary, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49:393–404
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.02.024, PMid:15325207
 
Walker C.H., Hopkin S.P., Sibly R.M., and Peakall D.B., 2001, Principles of Ecotoxicology 2Nd Ed., Taylor & Francis
 
Walker CH and Livingstone DR, 1992, Persistent Pollutants in Marine Ecosystems , A volume in Society of Environment Toxicology and Chemistry.
 
Wallberg P., and Moberg L., 2002, Evaluation of 20 years of environmental monitoring data around Swedish nuclear installations, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 63(2): 117–133
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(02)00021-8
Wang W X., 2002, Interactions of trace metals and different marine food chains, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 243: 295–309
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps243295
 
Worm B., Barbier E.B., Beaumont N., Duffy J.E., Folke C., and Halpern B.S., 2006, Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services, Science, 314: 787–790
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1132294, PMid:17082450
 
Yakimov M.M., Timmis K.N., and Golyshin P.N., 2007, Obligate oil-degrading marine bacteria, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 18(3): 257–266
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2007.04.006, PMid:17493798
 
Zhou H.W., Wong A.H, Yu R.M., Park Y.D., Wong Y.S., and Tam N.F., 2009, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced structural shift of bacterial communities in mangrove sediment, Microbial Ecology, 58(1): 153-160
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-008-9456-x, PMid:18958515
 
Zhou Q., Zhang J., Fu, J., Shi J., and Jiang G., 2008, Biomonitoring: An appealing tool for assessment of metal pollution in the aquatic ecosystem, Analytica chimica acta, 606: 135-150
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2007.11.018, PMid:18082645
 

 

 

International Journal of Marine Science
• Volume 6
View Options
. PDF(320KB)
. FPDF
. HTML
. Online fPDF
Associated material
. Readers' comments
Other articles by authors
pornliz suckporn porndick pornstereo . M. Mohan
. Jyothy S
. Navya Cherian
. Toms Augustine
. K. Sreedharan
. V. G. Gopikrishna
Related articles
. Marine environment
. Ecotoxicology
. Toxic pollutants
. Heavy metals
Tools
. Email to a friend
. Post a comment