Amino Acids Content of Anadara indica at Garapan and Cibungur Rivermouths, Banten Province, Indonesia  

Noverita Dian Takarina1 , Tjiong Giok Pin2 , Titin Siswantining3
1. Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia
2. Department of Geography, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia
3. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Marine Science, 2016, Vol. 6, No. 13   doi: 10.5376/ijms.2016.06.0013
Received: 18 Feb., 2016    Accepted: 08 Apr., 2016    Published: 08 Apr., 2016
© 2016 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Takarina N.D., Pin T.G., Siswantining T., 2016, Amino Acids Content of Anadara indica at Garapan and Cibungur Rivermouths, Banten Province, Indonesia, International Journal of Marine Science, 6(13): 1-4 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2016.06.0013)

Abstract

Amino acid is one of organic compounds that are biologically important for human. Cockles have been used as amino acid alternative source in fulfilling daily diet. Anadara indica is one of cockles that widely found in Southeast Asia and yet, where content amino acid in this cockle has been studied. This research is aimed to investigate the content of amino acid in Anadara indica. Samples were collected from Garapan and Cibungur rivermouths using “garoo”. Samples then grouped into small, medium, and large categories based on their shell length. Amino acid content was measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Arginin have higher concentration compared to other essential amino acids which was 1.86 %, while among non essential amino acid, glutamate acid has the highest concentration, which was 2.51 %. As consideration of food source, this cockle is very potential.

Keywords
Essential amino acids; Nonessential amino acids; Cockles; Anadara indica; Food source

Introduction
Amino acid is one of components that build protein in animal. All of them are divided into two groups, essential and non essential amino acids (Sitompul, 2004). According to Hames and Hooper (2005), examples of essential amino acids are histidine, arginine, treonine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, lysine, tryptophan, while for the nonessential ones are aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, proline, tyrosine, and cystine.
 
Cockles have rich nutrient content and excellent for food source. Beside that, they are also sold as high comodity, either in local or international market. According to Syahfril et al. (2004), Anadara is one of cockles that often consumed. This genus apparently become alternative protein source since their meat contain high protein and have a good taste (Satrioajie et al. 2013). Budiawan (2013) stated Anadara indica often consumed by low class up to higher class society and have been directly caught by local fishermen.
 
Some studies about amino acids content in bivalves has been reported by some reseachers. Hidayat (2011) found that in meat and organs of Anadara antiquata, arginine become the most prominent compared to other essential amino acids. The content of arginine in meat was 0.83% and 0.57% in organs. Glutamate acid was the highest one for nonessential amino acid which were 1.74% in meat and 1.22% in organs. Chairunissah (2011) reported the same result too, that arginin and glutamate acid existed in high concentration on three mussels, Meretrix meretrix, Pholas dactylus, and Babylonia spirata.
 
Information about amino acid content in Anadara indica is very few. It is very important to investigate content of amino acids in this cockle for it is a good source of protein for societies need.
 
Material and Methods
Sampling Site
Sampling was carried out in Garapan and Cibungur. Garapan is situated in Tanjung Pasir, Tangerang, Banten, while, Cibungur is located in Panimbang, Pandeglang, Banten (Figure 1). There are four stations in each rivermouth that were chosen randomly.
 
  

Figure 1 Sampling Sites, Garapan Rivermouth (left) and Cibumgur Rivermouth (right)

 

Sampling and Grouping Anadara indica

Anadara indica were collected using garoo. After that, samples were sorted based on their shell length into small (<31.80 mm), medium (31.80-38.90 mm), and large (>38.90 mm). Sample then stored for further analysis.
 
Amino Acid Measurement
Content of amino acid in cockles were measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Saraswanti Indo Genetech (SIG) Laboratory. All amino acid were analyzed based on Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (2005).
 
Amino Acid standard solution. 40 µl standard was mixed with amino acid, then added with 40 µl AABA standard internal and 920 µl aquabidest. Solution then homogenized and from this, took 10 µl standard solution. After that, it was added sequentially with 70 µl Acc-Q-Flour Borate, vortexed and added with 20 µl Flour A reagent and vortexed again, then allowed to stand for 1 minute, incubated for 10 minutes at 55 oC then injected to HPLC.
 
Sample solution. 0.1 gr sample was added with 5 ml HCl, then vortexed. After that, solution were hydrolized for 22 hours at 110 oC, wait until it is cool, then poured into 50 ml volumetric flask, added with aquabidest until exact mark. Filtrate then pipetted for 500 µl into vial, then added with 40 µm AABA and 460 µl aquabidest. After samples have been filtered and took for 10 µl standard, then added it with 70 µl Acc-Q-Flour Borate and vortexed. It was added 20 µl flour A reagent and vortexed again, then allowed to stand for 1 minute. Incubation was done for 10 minutes at 55 oC, as soon as it finish then injected to HPLC
 
Statistical Analysis
Amino acid content both essential and nonessential in three body size (large, medium, small) of Anadara indica at two location were analysed using Anova 1 Factor. The analysis was performed using statistical software.
 
Result and Discussion
It is known that bivalve contain high protein beside their cheap price (Srimariana et al. 2014). According to Babu et al. (2012), Gafrarium tumidum contained amino acid as much as 42.97%, composed of 20.77 % esential amino acid, and 22.2 % nonessential amino acid.
 
In this research, 18 amino acids were measured, which were 10 essential amino acids and 8 nonessential amino acids. According to Kirk and Othmer (1953) in Nurhayati et al. (2011), when amino acids produced between 18 up to 20 amino acids, it meant that the hydrolysis went well. The content of essential amino acid was shown at Table 1.
According to Table 1, arginin has highest concentration followed by lysin and leucine. Concentration of arginin was high in small A. indica at Cibungur (1.86) and large A.indica at Garapan (1.47). Histidine has low concentration compared to other amino acids, except for typtophan in small A. indica at Cibungur. Totally, high content of essential amino acids were foumd in small A. indica at Cibungur and large A. indica at Garapan rivermouth.
 
Villanueva et al. (2004) reported that arginine was needed for metabolism process in cephalopod, while Pereira et al. (2000) stated that this amino acid was highly found in mollusc muscle. Villanuela et al. (2004) also reported leucine and lycine were highly found in sea molluscs. According to Murdinah (2009), green mussel contain protein 16.7-21.9 %, that were rich in arginine, leucine and lysin. This finding also similar with Chairunisah (2011) and Hidayat (2011).
 
Table 2 showed the content of nonessential amino acid in Anadara indica.
 
  

Table 1 Content of essential amino acid in Anadara indica

 

 

Table 2 Content of nonessential amino acid in Anadara indica

 

Glutamic acid, aspartic acid and glycine have high concentration in A. indica (Table 2). The highest content of those amino acids were found in small A. indica at Cibungur (2.51, 1.80, 1,28). Cystine has the lower concentration in this cockle (0.00 – 0.27) compared to other nonessential amino acids. Totally, high content of nonessential amino acids were found in small A. indica at Cibungur and large A. indica at Garapan.
 
This finding has the same result as Derby et al (2007), who reported that in sea mollusc, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine and alanine were abundant. Krug et al. (2009), stated that in muscle tissue, very high content of nonessential amino acid have been observed. They were alanine, glycine, and glutamic acid.
 
Based on the result, this cockle were good as source of protein. Murdinah (2009) stated that in condiment (like sauce) made of green mussel contained 15 amino acid. From all of them, there are 4 amino acids that dominant, which were glutamic acid (9,37%), glycine (8,24%), alanine (8,11%), and lysine (8,24%). West and Tood (1964) in Nurhayati (2011), stated that those amino acid together with serine, threonine, cystine and proline give a sweet taste, while glutamic acid as flavour taste.
 
Result of statistical analysis, showed that there was no siginficant difference on amino acid content either essential or nonessential between three body size of Anadara indica for each location (p > 0.05).
 
 

Table 3 Statistical analysis

 

Conclusion

In this research, there are 18 amino acids found in Anadara indica. Arginine, leucine, and lycine were essential amino acids that found in A. indica. Glutamic acid, aspartic acid and glycine were nonessential amino acids observed in A. Indica.
 
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