Review Article

Status and Impacts of Industrial Pollution on the Karnafully River in Bangladesh: A Review  

Md. Simul Bhuyan , Md. Shafiqul Islam
Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Marine Science, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 16   doi: 10.5376/ijms.2017.07.0016
Received: 12 Apr., 2017    Accepted: 09 May, 2017    Published: 11 May, 2017
© 2017 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Bhuyan S., and Islam S., 2017, Status and impacts of industrial pollution on the Karnafully River in Bangladesh: a review, International Journal of Marine Science, 7(16): 141-160 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2017.07.0016)

Abstract

Rapid growth of urbanization and industrialization in Bangladesh has been coupled with increasing environmental pollution. The coastal and estuarine ecosystems of the country are now facing increasing pollution pressures because of the elevated level of waste discharges from various sources. Major sources of pollution include domestic sewage, industrial waste, commercial waste, agricultural waste, institutional waste, street sweepings, construction debris, mining activities and sanitation residues etc. In this review, status and effect of solid waste pollution, heavy metal pollution, organochlorine pesticides pollution and oil pollution along with the Karnafully River Estuary is assessed by a comprehensive review, recorded by researchers especially on water, sediment and aquatic biota. Different study show that metal concentrations in estuarine water relatively higher due to rapid acceleration of industrial sector. Metal concentrations is higher in fish than water and sediment. Elevated level of trace metals is highly detrimental for fish and human mechanism shown by different studies. Oil pollution is responsible for environmental deterioration due to its adverse effects on estuarine biota, fish and shellfishes, phytoplankton and zooplankton. Industrialization is needed for the development of the country. But it should be eco-friendly for the effective and sustainable development and for the protection of the environment (aquatic).

Keywords
Industrial pollution; Impacts; Biota; Development; Karnafully River

Introduction

Bangladesh is blessed with an extensive coastline of about 710 km which is mostly covered by a complex estuarine ecosystem (Pramanik, 1988). This estuarine ecosystem is enriched with the huge amount of living resources such as aquatic macrophytes (i.e. Tropical moist forest, salt marshes, seagrasses and seaweeds), fisheries, avian fauna, animals and coral reefs (Kamal and Khan, 2009). In Bangladesh, the estuarine system is comprised mainly of the Brahmaputra - Megna (Gangetic delta), Karnafully, Matamuhuri, Bakkhali and Naf rivers etc.

 

However, the Karnafully estuary (Figure 1) originating from the Lushai hills of Asam in India ultimately finds its way into the Bay of Bengal through the south-eastern coast of Bangladesh (O’ Mallery, 1908). This estuary is an important for many aspects including navigation, transportation, fishing activities, docking yards, the industrial utility of river water (Siddique and Akter, 2012). Moreover, it is used for port activities, fishing and industries (cooling and processing purposes) (Sarkar, 1998). But pollution is rapidly increasing and crossing safe limit day by day in the Karnafully River Estuary hampering coastal fisheries and people (Forkan, 2003). Water pollution occurs when foreign materials, either from natural or other sources mixes with water, contaminate water supplies and may be harmful to life because of their toxicity and the reduction of the normal O2 level of water as well as they also have aesthetically unpalatable effects which are responsible for the spread of epidemic diseases (Pandey, 1997). This river receives a lot of canals, tributaries and small river, which has been played a dominant role on the hydrobiology of the Karnafully River, contributing large amount of contaminated water, solid wastes, sewage (Hossain et al., 2006). The latest addition to the fertilizer industry is a modern installation with a proper stream, but Hossain (1992) reported that the Karnafully estuary is, nevertheless, being polluted by its effluents. About 800 industrial units are located on and adjacent to the banks of the Karnafully in different industrial areas such as Kalurghat, Nashirabad, Sagarica and Anawara industrial zone as well as oil refinery, oil companies depot, ship breaking activities, etc. (ADB, 2004). It is obvious that huge amounts of toxic pollutants in its rivers and in the Bay of Bengal are threatening aquatic life, particularly fish. Many cases of localized but severe environmental problems, like fish kills, have been registered by the DOE, other institutions and by fisher folk (Bhouyain, 1983). The invertebrate’s fauna is affected by the elimination of certain species, taxa which are universally affected by metal mining and associated activities. Mollusks, crustacean, Platyhelminthes, oligochaetes and some groups appear to behave inconsistently in response to metal pollution (Tyler and Buckney, 1973; Bhuyan et al., 2016; Islam et al., 2016). Consequently, any form of critical investigation on estuarine living resources and their environment can be considered as an important research in Bangladesh. As part of the estuarine study, this paper review the living estuarine resources with their usefulness and their depletion due to pollution.

 

 

Figure 1 Map showing the study site (Map created by ArcGIS v.10.3)

 

1 Status of the Water Quality

1.1 Physico-chemical parameters of the Karnafully River

Industrialization increases the unsuitability of surface water and create pressure on ground water which have negative impacts on human and aquatic organisms (Bhuyan et al., 2017). Physico-chemical parameters fluctuated seasonally in the estuarine area (Khan and Mahmood, 1976; Quader, 1978; Paul, 1981; Hossain et al., 1988a; Hossain et al., 1988b; Hossain, 1992; Islam, 1993; Uddin, 1993; Ahammod, 1995). The ranges of measured parameters of water samples were 26.5-32ºC, 0.0-5.0‰, 7.5-7.9 and 2.28-2.91 mg/L for temperature, salinity, pH and DO (Alam and Zafar, 2012) (Table 1).

 

 

Table 1 Physico-chemical parameters of the Karnafully river water (Source: Sarwar et al., 2010)

 

At the waste disposal area, DO varied between (3.3-6.2) mg/L, BOD (1.83-4.82) mg/L and pH (6.3-7.8) (Hossain et al., 1988). Islam et al. (2015) recorded the mean concentrations of pH (7.1-8.5), DO (0.1-0.55 mg/L), TA (47.6-65.9 mg/L), TDS (631.8-653.6 mg/L), TSS (280-300.3 mg/L), SO4-S (1-2.3 mg/L), NH3 (0.6-1.1 mg/L), NO3-N (0.2-0.3 mg/L) and PO4-P (0.1-0.5 mg/L). Ahmed et al. (2010) also studied on the Karnafully river water quality (Table 2).

 

 

Table 2 Water quality of the Karnafully River

Note: Source: Ahmed et al. (2010)

 

The total Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) load was estimated at about 3.5 MT every day (Ali, 1997). Uddin (2006) recorded the value of DO (4.9-5.21) mg/L, TDS (115-550) mg/L, BOD (1.14-2.99) mg/L, COD (10.8-32.1) mg/L (Uddin, 2006). Akter (2012) found following values from KPM effluent (Table 3).

 

 

Table 3 Experimented value from laboratory analysis of KPM effluent

Note: Source: Akter (2012)

 

Temperature, transparency, pH, DO, BOD and petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in water sample were found to be ranged from 27-29°C, 14-18 cm, 7.9-9.5, 4.5-7.9 mg/L, 33.6-450.3 mg/L (Ahmed, 2006). According to Chowdhury (2005) DO, water temperature, pH, salinity, CO2, H-CO3, alkalinity, NO2-N, PO4-P and SiO3-Si varied seasonally. Hossain (2004) and Ahmed (2010) also conducted research on the water quality of the arnafully river (Table 4; Table 5).

 

 

Table 4 Typical analysis of river water and pollution load in the Karnafully River at different locations, April 1984- March 1985

Note: Source: Hossain (2004)

 

 

Table 5 Seasonal variation of the Karnafully river water quality

Note: Source: Ahmed (2010)

 

2.2 Sediment

The overlying deposits of the Karnafully river is consist of successive layers of mud and sand (Rizvi, 1971). During rainy season, a large amount of sand and mud particles run down into the river water increasing turbidity and decreasing navigability of the river by siltation (Hossain, 1992). Chowdhury (2005) conductd a comprehensive study on the soil of the Karnafully river (Table 6).

 

 

Table 6 Organic carbon, organic matter and soil texture of sediment at three stations during post-monsoon (January, 2005)

Note: Source: Chowdhury (2005)

 

2.3 Macro benthos

Macro benthos distribution vary spatially and temporally (Sharif et al., 2017). According to Chowdhury (2005) maximum population density 148583 indiv/m2 was recorded during pre-monsoon at Amanat Shah Bridge and minimum population density 1333.33 indiv/m2 was recorded at Jetty no.15 during monsoon. Sharif et al. (2017) recorded 25 major taxa of zooplankton from the Karnafully River of which 23 taxa during monsoon, 20 taxa during post monsoon and 20 taxa during pre-monsoon. Species richness, diversity and evenness were very low in the mouth of the Chaktai canal where majority of sewage materials of Chittagong city falls into the Karnafully estuary in comparison with the Goverment Fish landing station and Eastern side of the third Karnafully Bridge (Molla et al., 2014). Oligochaetes, the most common that constitute the largest assembles of benthic form during pre-monsoon and lowest during monsoon (Kamruzzaman, 2003) (Table 7).

 

 

Table 7 Major taxa of macro benthos and their total number (indiv/m2) among Amanat Shah Bridge, Sadar Ghat, Jetty no. 15 during post-monsoon (December-2004)

Note: Source: Chowdhury (2005)

 

2.4 Bacteria

Health hazard bacteria are Escherichia coli, Fecal Streptococci sp. and Staphylococcus. Occurrence of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio cholerae were also found (Alam, 2005). In compare with bacterial load between water and sediment, sediment sample carry higher bacteria than water sample in the Karnafully River (Alam, 2005). The available DO consumed by bacterial activity and thus the presence of such materials quickly leads to a depletion of DO (Islam, 1998). Hossain et al. (1988) recorded as many as 18000 coliforms/100 mL in the Karnafully River Estuary near sewage disposal areas which is higher than safer level (0/100 mL) for drinking water and greater than 200 cells/100 mL for bathing recommended by WHO (1984) (Table 8).

 

 

Table 8 Seasonal variations of different group of organisms/m2 at polluted and unpolluted area of the Karnafully River Estuary

 

Bacteriological study showed that coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci occurred in greater frequency in the polluted area of the Karnafully River rather than pristine area. Polluted stations (Sadarghat and Majhirghat) were dominant in respect of quantitative distribution of Oligochaetes and Polychaetes and occasionally Molluscs (Hossain, 1983) (Table 9).

 

 

Table 9 Health hazard indicating bacterial load in water and sediment of the three sampling sites of the Karnafully River Estuary

Note: Source: Alam (2005)

 

2.5 Fish diversity

Total 30806 numbers of species were found and the range of species number was from 397 to 1296 with a mean of 855.72±202.58 (Habib, 2011). According to Khan (2005) there are about 51 species under 23 families were found in the Karnafully River Estuary. Among seventy four (74) fish species have been reported by Bhuiyan and Gafur (1977). Twenty eight (28) have neither obtained in sample nor interviewing to fishermen revealed to exit which showed in Kamal (1992) observation. This is probably due to huge pollutant discharges from various sources into the estuary. Pollution status and its hazardous effects in the Karnafully River Estuary have been reported by Khan and Talukder (1993) and Mahmood et al. (1992). Diversity of ichthyofauna is closely related with physico-chemical parameters. Species distribution also vary temporal and spatial basis. In the monsoon, species diversity was found than that of the any other seasons (Khan, 2005). The combination of diverse fluctuating parameters are responsible for distribution and occurrence of ichthyofauna in the estuarine waters (Zafar, 1986).

 

3 Pollution Sources and Industries

3.1 Major sources of pollution

Water is the most vital element among the natural resources and is crucial for the survival of all living organisms including humans, for food production and economic development (Shiklomanov, 1993). Surface water of the country is vulnerable to pollution from untreated industrial effluents, municipal wastewater, runoff from chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and oil and lube spillage in the coastal area from the operation of sea and river ports (Hossain, 2001). Water quality depends on effluent types and discharge quantity from different types of industries, types of agrochemicals used in agriculture and seasonal water flow and dilution capability by the river system (DHV, 1998). Industries along the side of the River Karnafully damp 50 to 60 ton of wastes per day directly into the river (Table 10).

 

 

Table 10 Estimated Pollution load as Biodegradable organics in terms of kg BOD/day at Chittagong

Note: Source: ESCAP (1988)

 

Moreover, 05 major canals carry domestic and municipal wastes and effluents to the River Karnafully. Urea Fertilizer Factory discharges untreated effluents directly into the River Karnafully. Hg, Pb, Cr, Cd and As from 144 industries, degradable and persistent organic and inorganic compounds from 297 industries and oil, lubricants from (40-50) tankers polluting Karnafully river (MoFL, 2013). From the survey of effluents from different industries, it has been found that the discharge is generally composed of organic and inorganic wastes. The organic wastes are the effluents from the tanneries, fish processing units, degradable wood chips, pulps and untreated municipal and sewage (about 40,000 kg BOD daily) etc. The inorganic waster are chemicals used by the industries such as various acids, bleaching powder, lissapol, hydrogen peroxide, alkali, salts, lime, dyes, pigments, aluminium-sulphate and heavy metals etc. The DDT factory and fertilizer factory disposing of DDT, toxic chemicals and heavy metals to the Karnafully River and ultimately to the Bay of Bengal. Some survey showed about 220 ppm of chromium, 0.3-2.9 of cadmium, 0.05-0.27 ppm of mercury, 0.5-21.8 ppm of lead entering into river and sea water much higher than allowable limits and extremely alarmingly to aquatic flora and fauna and through food chains to human beings (Table 11).

 

 

Table 11 Mean load of heavy metals in the coastal water of Chittagong (Tamanna and Hossain, 2010)

Note: Maximum deterioration of the water quality was observed during summer and rainy season due to excessive disposal of wastes and outfall of land washing (Hossain, 1988)

 

It may be mentioned that Bangladesh obtain table salt from solar drying of sea water and consequently increase pollution of sea water shell create a serious national health hazard situation (IEDS, 2003). The concentration of Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni and Cr were observed higher and concentration of Mn and Cd were found lower than that of the recommended values. It was assumed that from the analytical findings that the estuary has been polluted from domestic sewages, land washout, river runoff and shipping activities (Das et al., 2002). There are some study on the contamination level of heavy metals in water and in sediments along the Karnafully estuary and its adjacent coastal area (Sarker, 1998; Sanjoy, 2007; Tamanna and Hossain, 2010; Hossain, 2010). An ADB study reported effluent flux of 150,000 litres/day from tannery Industry at Kalurghat, Chittagong, and discharge of about 0.35 tons of China clay/day from Karnafully Paper Mills (KPM) at Chittagong (MoEF, 2005) that Pollutes river water. According to a government report, in the 1994-1995 fiscal year alone, 2528 metric tonnes of wastes were dumped from shrimp processing units into the Bay of Bengal via the Karnafully River (Hassan, 2006). Human excreta from the city’s 50,000 sanitary and 24,000 service latrines are thrown into the river (Khan et al., 1996). Technical workshops, automobile factories, motor garage, vehicle repairing units, asphalt road constructions, etc. discharge lube oil, grease, diesel, bitumen, and tar, which ultimately contaminate the sediment. The industrial zones, EPZs and city dwellers activities are also responsible for oil contamination in the Karnafully River (Hossain, 2006). Rajakhali Canal, a tributary of the Karnafully River estuary, flowing through Chittagong City (the commercial capital of Bangladesh) receives a huge amount of domestic and industrial wastes and sewages (Islam et al., 2015). In Chittagong region, wastewater from Nasirabad industrial area (mainly chemical, leather, textile and steel re-rolling industries) is discharged into surface drains that ultimately carry it to the Karnafully river (Dey et al., 2015). There are rather few studies published in recent years on pollution sources in the Karnafully River (Hossain et al., 1992; 2001). Annually about 1216 ships and 45-60 oil tankers are handled at the Chittagong port (Ashraful, 2003). As a result, various refuse and disposable materials are discharged and spills from ships, oil tankers and fishing boats get mixed with water and sediments. The high level of Cu in sediments of the Karnafully coast indicates a higher input of deposited organic matter which comes from the industrial and domestic sewages (Siddique, 2012). Nutrient pollution occurred at the Karnafully River to St Martin Island, BoB when concentrations of nitrate, phosphate and silicate vary from 0.16 to 8.98 μg-at/1, 0.08 to 2.33 μg at/1 and 0.67 to 6331 μg-at/1 which indicate high productivity (Holmgren, 1994). Running water of the Rivers Karnafully and Padma is heavily contaminated by industrial influents of factories from the river banks (Sarker, 2009) (Table 12).

 

 

Table 12 Estimated amount of pollutants entering the water

Note: * (−) means data not available; Source: Department of Environmental Pollution Control, Bangladesh (ESCAP, 1988)

 

3.2 Major polluting industries

The major polluting industries are 19 tanneries, 26 textile mills, 1 oil refinery, 1 TSP plant, 1 DDT plant, 2 chemical complexes, 5 fish processing units, 1 urea fertilizer factory, 1 asphalt bitumen plant, 1 steel mill, 1 paper mill (solid waste disposal hourly 1450 m³), 1 rayon mill complex, 2 cement factories, 2 pesticide manufacturing plants, 4 paint and dye manufacturing plants, several soap and detergent factories and a number of light industrial units (IEDS, 2003) (Figure 2). According to Islam (1993); Rahman (1994); Ahmed et al. (2002); Kamruzzaman (2003) and Uddin (2006) the polluting industrial units include 19 tanneries, 26 textile mills, 2 chemical industries, 5 fish processing plants, 2 soap factories, 2 pesticide plants, 2 detergent plants, 1 oil refinery, 1 asphalt bitumen plant, 1 TSP plant, Chittagong Steel Mills Ltd., Karnafully Paper Mills, Karnafully Rayon Complex, coca cola factory, 4 paint and dye manufacturing units, Chittagong Urea Fertilizer Ltd. (CUFL), Triple superphosphate (TSP), and Karnafully Fertilizer Company (KAFCO).

 

 

Figure 2 Types and number of industries close to the Karnafully River

Note: Source: Sarwar et al. (2010)

 

3.3 Major pollutants

SO2, CO2, NO3, H2S and lignin vapor from tanning industries; Na2SO4, NaOH, CaCO3, Ca(OH), Hg, Na2CO3, Na2SO3, H2SO4, HCl etc. from pulp and paper industries; Cr, Ni, Cd textile industries; NH3, NO2, SO2, H2SO4, Sulphur dust, rock dust and COD from fertilizer industries; Lime components, silica, alumina iron from cement industries; DDT, Caustic soda, HCl, H2SO4, bleaching powder, acids, alkalis, ammonia, chlorine and suspended solid from chemical industries; waste water containing high level of BOD, COD, Phenol, Cyanides and very low value of DO from iron, steel and metal industries; crude oil from oil refinery; baling, jute fibre and dust from jute industries; minerals, organic acids, alkalis, ammonia, suspended solids and various chemicals from pharmaceutical industries; acids, solvents, cyanides, chlorophenolic components, lead, copper, arsenic, suspended solids etc. from pesticides and herbicide manufacturing industries; Zn, Cd and grease from rubber and plastic industries; pigments, resins, solvent, Pb, Sal, Cr, Cd, and Zn from paint manufacturing industries are major pollutants of the Karnafully water pollution (Ahmed et al., 2002). According to Chowdhury (1994) caustic soda, lime stone, lime, salt cake, resin size, china clay, alum, sodium sulphate, sodium sulphide, chlorine gas, calcium hydrochloride, hydrochloride, sulphuric acid and sodium hexameta phosphate are major chemicals used in KPM and KPRC industries.

 

3.4 Types of pollutants

3.4.1 Organochlorine pesticides

Seasonal variation in organochlorine pesticides was estimated in the Karnafully River (Table 13).

 

 

Table 13 Seasonal variation in Organochlorine pesticides

Note: Source: Mannan (2006)

 

3.4.2 Solid wastes

Solid and solid wastes causes serious environmental problems containing urban local government in developing countries. Solid waste generation of the urban areas of Bangladesh is increasing proportionately with the growth of its population that is 5.4% per annum (BBS, 1997). The highest Total Suspended Solid (TSS) was found 405 mg/L at the Karnafully River Estuary (Jetty No.15) and lowest was 169 mg/L (Uddin, 2006). The concentration of TDS was 520 mg/L and TSS was 220 mg/L in dry season and 400 mg/L TDS as well as 620 mg/L was found in wet season at KPM discharge point (Akter, 2012). Akter (2012) showed that solid waste generated from domestic sewage which contributes (53.9%), street sweeping (19.5%), commercial waste (1.4%), industrial waste (8.2%) and clinical waste (1%) in Chittagong city. According to Sarkar (2000) domestic sewage contributes (48.9%), street sweeping (21.5%), commercial waste (18.4%), industrial waste (10.2%) and clinical waste (1%) in Chittagong city.

 

3.4.3 Domestic sewage

The mixture of water and waste products popularly called sewage (EQS, 1991). Human excreta is only one component of domestic sewage with the wastes of personal washing, household cleaning and home food preparation adding to the dissolved and suspended, organic and inorganic materials in the carrier water (Uddin, 1993) consist of nitrogenous materials, carbohydrates, fats and soaps (EQS, 1991). The Chittagong city has about 50000 sanitary latrines, 24000 service latrines and 3 public toilets whose excreta collected by the municipality are stored in 5 large tanks for 2 months and then discharged into the rivers (Mozumder, 2003). In case of sewage, Chaktai canal contributes 30%, Monoharkhali canal 15%, Majhirghat canal 25% and Firingi-Bazar canal 18% into the Karnafully River (Source: Ahammod, 1995).

 

3.4.4 Oil pollution

Oil pollution is only one of man’s untreated wastes which contributing to the deterioration of the environment (Ahmed, 2006). In the coastal area, it is about 0-2.3 to 0-3.4 ug/kg on the surface of the water. In the tanker routes, it is about 21.7 to 11.2 ug/kg on the surface and the value of the same varies from 23.2 to 13.6 ug/kg at 10 m deep water (Alam, 2004) (Table 14).

 

 

Table 14 Oil and oily substances in the Chittagong Area

Note: Assuming 0.5% transportation loss during crude oil transfer at Chittagong port; Source: ESCAP (1988)

 

According to Ahmed (2006) about 102-230 mg/L residual oil from surface area, 33.6 mg/L-180 mg/L from 5 m depth and 35.5-230.5 mg/L from 10 m depth were found (Table 15).

 

 

Table 15 Probable oil spill points in Chittagong coastal environment

Note: Merchant vessels and tankers based sources; Source: Hossain (2006)

 

3.4.5 Heavy metal pollution

Heavy metal concentrations in the water of the river varied temporally and spatially (Bhuyan and Islam, 2017). Heavy metal concentration varied according to seasons in water, sediment and fish (Table 16; Table 17).

 

 

Table 16 Seasonal variation of trace metal concentrations (μg/mL) in water sample of the Karnafully River Estuary

Note: Source: Sarkar (1998)

 

 

Table 17 Seasonal variation of trace metal concentrations (μg/mL) in sediment sample of the Karnafully River Estuary

Note: Source: Sarkar (1998)

 

Most of the dissolved heavy metals were found to be in slightly higher concentrations during winter than that of the rainy season. This trend indicates that during low flow condition of river, the accumulation of the metal concentration increases (Dey et al., 2015) (Table 18).

 

 

Table 18 Seasonal variation of trace metal concentrations (μg/mL) in Jew fish (Otolithoides microdon) sample of the Karnafully River Estuary (Sarkar, 1998)

 

The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cr, and Ni in river and estuarine water vary from 0.025-0.136, 0.002-0.154, 0.695 to 19.54, 0.205 to 0.598, 0.0045 to 0.013, 0.064 to 0.245 and 0.0085 to 0.01065 mg-l respectively (Ahamed et al., 2003; Datta et al., 2008) and some study on the seasonal contamination level of heavy metals in water and in sediments along the Karnafully estuary and its adjacent coastal area (Sarker, 1998; Sanjoy, 2007; Tamanna and Hossain, 2010; Hossain, 2010) (Table 19; Table 20).

 

 

Table 19 Concentration of Lead (Pb) during rainy and winter season by at different sites

Note: BDL = Below Detection Limit; Detection Limit of Instruments: For Pb 0.013 mg/L; Source: Dey et al. (2015)

 

 

Table 20 Comparing overall mean concentration of metals in the Karnafully river with WHO standards

Note: BDL= Below Detection Limit ; Source: Dey et al. (2015)

 

Water is presently contaminated by heavy metals from dyeing industries and oil spills from ship braking industries and ongoing vessels (Sarker, 1991; 1992; 2004; Sarker and Sarker, 1986; 1988).

 

3.5 Major causes of fish depletion

In Bangladesh, the fish species from the inland and marine water bodies declined gradually due over the last two decades and the catch of fish declined about 40% compared to the past 20 years (DoF, 2002). A number of studies indicated that the major cause of declining fish catch from the river are the increased fishing pressure and habitat destruction (Tsai and Ali, 1987; Siddique, 1990; Hogarth et al., 1999; Graff et al., 2001). Species diversity also declined due to indiscriminate use of gears, over fishing, destruction of spawning ground and trapping of so called white fish (i.e., carps and butterfish) during their downstream migration from floodplains to river (Ali, 1997; Hogarth et al., 1999; Graff et al., 2001). Pollution, soil erosion, siltation, reclamation of land for settlement, reduction of wetland and biodiversity and proper management problem are the probable causes for the declination of the fishery resources (Khan, 2005).

 

4 Impacts of Pollution

The scientists in a recent research on the Karnafully found traces of radioactivity ‘very close to risk level’ on the soil. If radioactivity of the river soil goes up it will hamper the natural breeding of fish as well as growth of fishes. If the people eat the affected fish it may spread to their body (Amin, 2015). Ahmed and Reazuddin (2000) reported that the availability of the heavy metal in river water directly affects the fish physiology and by the consumption ultimately affects the human health. The presence of heavy metals in the aquatic environment is of major concern because of their heavy toxicity, bio-accumulating tendency in the biota. Pollution by heavy metals is a threat to human life and the entire environment as well as the wetland ecosystem (Islam and Tanaka, 2004; Igwe and Abia, 2006).

 

Oil pollution responsible for loss of productivity, other resources and exert adverse effects on aquatic environment, sometimes it become carcinogenic to living organisms (Ahmed, 2006). Oil pollution causes severe damage to fishes and crustaceans.

 

Contaminated water is not suitable for household uses and possibly hazardous to many aquatic animals and human health. Salmonella spp. concentrations found in water and soil samples exceed the standard level both in water and soil that indicates contaminated water is unsuitable for drinking or for even washing without appropriate water treatment for humans (Alam, 2012). Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus causes abdominal cramping, water borne diseases like diarrhea, fever, nausea and vomiting (HACCP, 2000).

 

Long term consumption of fishes may have a negative impact on human health (Bhuyan et al. 2016). Pathogens (Oligochaetes) are causative agents of different types of diseases of human beings found very high abundance near sewage outfalls areas in the Karnafully River estuary, which indicates localized pollution in the estuary (Hossain, 1987). The major channels which carry domestic wastes and spread into the coastal city areas causing pathogenic microbial pollution and serious health hazards during the rainy season and flood periods severity is more in the Bay (Mahmood et al., 1994). 20,000 fishermen in Raujan, Rangunia and Anowara thanas previously dependent on the Karnafully river have given up their fishing profession because they do not have enough catches any more (SEHD, 2002). Lower concentrations of methyl mercury may kill aquatic organisms (Hossain, 2004). Paul (1981) also found the minimum phytoplankton population in the oil polluted Karnafully River Estuary. Most species of fish cannot survive in insecticides in concentrations greater than about 1-10 ppb. A sub lethal dose for fish and birds may bring immediate danger (Ali, 1997).

 

About 23 species of fishes were found in the Karnafully River during 1975-76, which has come down to 6-7 species during 1987-88. Effluents discharged from the large industries have ruined the Hilsha stock of the Karnafully river (Hossain et al., 2006). Presence of heavy metals in the river water causes perilous impact on the aquatic organisms (Dey et al., 2015). The fish catch is diminishing in the river year after year due to depletion of DO (Ali, 1997). The toxic chemical pollutants like Hg, Pb, Cd, COC and DO were found higher than the EQS value which is dangerous for entire aquatic ecosystem and public health (Akter, 2012). Excessive discharge of nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus compounds in the water system can cause eutrophication (Bhouyain, 1981). The presence of NO3- in natural water associated with ecological and health hazard, excess NO3- in human food and animal feed has adverse impacts, in human health it causes methmoglobinemia cancer (child cancer), respiratory illness. In animal health, causes loss of livestock. Excess NO3- pollute water causing eutrophication (Akter, 2012). Effects on marine organisms produced by industrial discharged oil studied by Hossain (2011) (Table 21).

 

 

Table 21 Effects of pollutants on marine biota

Note: Source: Hossain (2011)

 

5 Conclusion

From the critical review, it can be concluded that the Karnafully river water is being polluted gradually by haphazard and unplanned industrialization. Polluted water exacerbating the health problems both in human and fish posing different fatal and chronic diseases. This review also proved that, industrial area are severely polluted than non-industrial area. This review suggested that to protect the aquatic ecosystem by eco-friendly and planned industrial growth.

 

Authors contributions

Md. Simul Bhuyan designed and conducted the review. Md. Shafiqul Islam provided instructions and performed critical review of the manuscript.

 

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Biodiversity, Environment, Climate Change and Risk Assessment Research Laboratory, Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong which has the major contributions to conduct this research. Special thanks to Abu Sayeed Muhammad Sharif (Bangladesh Oceanographic Research Institute, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh), Muhammad Abu Bakar (Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chittagong, Bangladesh) and Mir Mohammad Ali (WorldFish, Bangladesh) for their continuous inspirations during the research. Special thanks extended to Mr. Md. Fazlur Rahman (Librarian, Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong) for his incessant support with books, term papers and thesis materials. Conveying heartfelt thanks to my family for continuous support and inspiarition.

 

References

ADB, 2004, Institutional strengthening of Chittagong Port Authority in environmental management, Volume 2, pp.177

 

Ahmed M.J., Haque M.R., Ahsan A., Siraj S., Bhuiyan M.H.R., Bhattacharjee S.C., and Islam S., 2010, Physicochemical Assessment of Surface and Groundwater Quality of the Greater Chittagong Region of Bangladesh, Pakistan Journal of Analytical & Environmental Chemistry, 11: 1-11

 

Ahmed R., 2006, An investigation of residual petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in water at some selected point in Karnafully River, Chittagong, Bangladesh, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Ahamed M.K., Mehadi M.Y., Haque M.R., and Ghosh R.P., 2003, Concentration of heavy metals in two upstream river sediments of the Sunderbons Mangrove Forest, Bangladesh, Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, 5: 41-47

 

Ahmed R., Rashid H.E., Akash M.M., Khan M.S., Khan M.A., Hossen M., Chowdhury A., Farooque M., Hasan R., Gain P., Moral S., Raj P., Salam F.M.A., Siddique R., Mojumder M.K., Omar K.I.M., Gregow K., Akhter F., Abedeen M.J., Shahriar H., Kamal M., Khan Y.S.A., Lipon S., Matin R., Tahmina Q.A., Alam S., Das U.K., Mondal G.B., Nandy G., Chowdhury S.I., Halim A., Kabir H., Sabuj R.I., Ali N., Sircar L., and Kamruzzamzn M., 2002, Bangladesh Environment: Facing the 21st Century

 

Ahmed A.U., and Reazuddin M., 2000, Industrial Pollution of Water Systems in Bangladesh. University Press Limited, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp.175-178

 

Ahammod M.S., 1995, Comparative study of municipal sewage, Chittagong, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Akter M., 2012, Present status of solid waste disposal and its management system in Kalurghat and Muradpur residential area, Chittagong, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Akter N., 2012, Water pollution in Karnafully River by Karnafully Paper Mill (KPM) and its effects on environment, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh, pp.24-33

 

Alam M.W., and Zafar M., 2012, Occurrences of Salmonella spp. in water and soil sample of the Karnafuli river estuary, Microbes and Health, 1: 41-45

 

Alam M.W., 2005, Study on the some health hazard indicating bacteria in water and sediment of the Karnafuly River Estuary, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong

 

Alam M.K., 2004, Bangladesh Maritime Challenges in the 21st Centuary, Pathak Shamabesh, p.528

 

Ali M.Y., 1997, Fish, Water and People: Reflections on Inland Open water Fisheries Resources of Bangladesh, The University Press Limited (UPL), p.154

 

Amin F.B., 2015, Water Pollution of Most of the Water Sources in, Bangladesh, FAIR, Foreign Affairs Insights and Reviews

 

Ashraful M.A.K., 2003, Trace metals in littoral sediments from the North east coast of the Bay of Bengal along the ship breaking area, Chittagong, Bangladesh, Journal of Biological Science, 3: 1050-1057

https://doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2003.1050.1057

 

Bangladesh Gazette, 1997, Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh

 

BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics), 1997, Statistics of Year Book of Bangladesh Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh

 

Bhuyan M.S., and Islam M.S., 2017, A critical review of heavy metal pollution and its effects in Bangladesh, Environmental and Energy Economics, 2: 12-25

 

Bhuyan M.S., Bakar M.A., Hoque M.E., Sharif A.S.M., and Islam M.S., 2017, Industrial pollution and its effects onfish in Bangladesh: A review. Indian Journal of Science 24: 46-57

 

Bhuyan M.S., Bakar M.A., Akhtar A., and Islam M.S., 2017, Heavy metals status in some commercially important fishes of Meghna River adjacent to Narsingdi District, Bangladesh: health risk assessment, American Journal of Life Sciences, 4: 60-70

https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajls.20160402.17

 

Bhouyain A.M., 1981, Effects of industrial pollution (Karnafully Paper Mill and Karnafully Rayon Complex) on the biology of River Karnafully, M. Phill Thesis, Department of Zoology, Bangladesh, pp.1961

 

Bhoyiyan A.M., 1983, Fresh and Brakish water pollution, Bangladesh Fisheries Resources Survey System Project, Department of Fisheries, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Fisheries Info, Bull; 3

 

Bhuiyan A.L., and Gafur M.A., 1977, The Ichthyofauna of the Karnafully River Estuary, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh, pp.228

 

Claes M., 1997, Comparison Study on river quality, Science of The Total Environment, 207: 141-148

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(97)00256-8

 

Chowdhury M.S., 2005, Study on the macro benthos of the Karnafully River with special reference to physio-chemical parameters, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Chowdhury N.K., 1994, Study on the effects of effluents discharged from the KPRC on the water quality with the preview of pollution status of the Karnafully River, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Chowdhury N.M., Haider S.M.B., and Chowdhury S.R., 1992, A review of the state or environments relating to marine fisheries of Bangladesh, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Datta D.K., Saha S.K., and Rahman M.S., 2008, Chemical flux to the coast of Bangladesh –a review, Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 37: 214-219

 

Das B., Ahmed Y.S., and Sarkar M.A.K., 2002, Trace metal concentration in water of the Karnafully River Estuary of the Bay of Bengal, Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 5: 607-608

https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2002.607.608

 

Dey S., Das J., and Manchur M.A., 2015, Studies on heavy metal pollution of Karnafully River, Chittagong, Bangladesh, IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT), 9: 79-83

 

De Graff G.J., Born A.F., Uddin A.K.M., and Martir F., 2001, Floods, fish and fisherman, Eight years’ experience with flood plain fisheries in Bangladesh, University Press Ltd. pp.174

 

DHV, 1998, Southwest area water resources development project, Feasibility study, final reports (vol. 2 and 3) to Bangladesh water development board, Government of Bangladesh

 

DoF, 2002, Fisheries resources information of Bangladesh, In matshaya pakhaya, M. N. Islam eds. Directorate of fisheries Bangladesh, pp.44-46

 

EC, 1986, Guidelines for drinking water quality

 

ESCAP, 1988, Coastal Environmental Management Plan for Bangladesh, Final Report Vol.2, Bangkok, Thailand, pp.149

 

EQS, 1991, Environmental quality standards for Bangladesh, Department of Environment, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh

 

Forkan M., 2003, Terminal operation of Jamuna Oil Company Ltd. and impacts of waste oil on the Karnafully River Estuary, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Habib A.N.M.G., 2011, Temporal distribution of fish and shell fish abundance in Karnafully RIver Estuary in relation to some water quality parameters, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points), 2000, A manual for shrimp and fish processing plant, Sar and Co. Ltd. Sagarica road, Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Hassan D., 2006, Protecting the marine environment from land based sources of pollution, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p.233

 

Hogarth D.D., Cowan V.J., Halls A.S., Apron-Thomas M.A., Miggregor J.A., Caraway C.A., Payne A.I., and Welcomme R.L., 1999, Management guidelines for Asian flood plain river fisheries, part 2: summary of DFID research FAO fisheries Technical paper 384/2, Rome, Italy, pp.117

 

Holmgren S., 1994, An environmental assessment of the bay of Bengal region, BOBP/REP/67. Nagaraj & Co., Madras, accessed 22 February, 2009

 

Hossain M.M., 2010, Ship breaking activities: threat to coastal environment, biodiversity and fishermen community in Chittagong, Bangladesh, Young Power in Social Action (YPSA), Chittagong, Bangladesh, pp.120

 

Hossain M.S., Islam M.S., and Chowdhury M.A.T., 2006, Shore based pollution sources of the Karnafully River and the effects of oil-grease on the riverine environment, The Journal of Geo-Environment, 5: 55-66

 

Hossain M.M.M., 2004, Sustainable management of the Bay of Bengal, large marine ecosystem (BOBLME)

 

Hossain M., 2001, Biological aspects of the coastal and marine environment of Bangladesh, Ocean Coast Managagement, 44: 261–282

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0964-5691(01)00049-7

 

Hossain T., 1992, Study on the environment impact assessment (EIA) of the effluent discharged by the Chittagong Urea Fertilizer Limited (CUFL) on the Karnafully River estuary, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh, p.55

 

Hossain M.M., Mahmood N., and Bhouyain A.M., 1988, Some water quality characteristics of the Karnafully, MAHASAGAR, 21: 183-188

 

Hossain M.M., Mahmood N., and Bhouyan A.M., 1988. Some water quality characteristics of the Karnafully River Estuary, Mosagar. Bull. National Ins. Of Oceanography, 21: 183-188

 

Hossain M.M., 1987, Macro-Zoo benthos as pollution indicators, A quarterly Newsletter of Environmental Sanitation information Center, AIT, Bangkok, 9: 8-10

 

Hossain M.M.M., 1983, Pollution as revealed by macro-benthic organisms in the Karnafully river estuary, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

IEDS, 2003, Aquatic ecology and dangerous substances: Bangladesh perspective, Diffuse Pollution Conference Dublin

 

Igwe J.C., and Abia A.A., 2006, A bio-separation process for removing heavy metals from waste water using bio sorbents, African Journal Biotechnology, 5: 1167-79

 

Islam M.S., Bhuyan, M.S., Monwar M.M., and Akhtar A., 2016, Some health hazard metals in commercially important coastal molluscan species in Bangladesh, Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 44: 123-131

https://doi.org/10.3329/bjz.v44i1.30182

 

Islam M.R., Das N.G., Barua P., Hossain M.B., Venkatramanan S., and Chung S.Y., 2015, Environmental assessment of water and soil contamination in Rajakhali Canal of Karnafully River (Bangladesh) impacted by anthropogenic influences: a preliminary case study, Applied Water Science

 

Islam M.D., and Tanaka M., 2004, Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems including coastal and marine fisheries and approach for management: a review and synthesis, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48: 624–649

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2003.12.004

PMid:15041420

 

Islam M.N., 1998, Study on the pollution indicating bacteria in the brakish water environment with reference to Karnafully River water Chittagong, Bangladesh, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Islam M.M., 1993, Study on the influence of the effluent discharged by the KPM and KRC on the physio-chemical parameters of the Karnafully River, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Kamal A.H.M., and Khan M.A.A., 2009, Coastal and estuarine resources of Bangladesh: management and conservation issues, Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology, 3: 313-342

 

Kamruzzaman M., 2003, Macro benthos of the Karnafully River Estuary receiving municipal and industrial effluents, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Kamal S., 1992, Studies on the intertidal Green mussel, Perna viridis L. inhabiting Moheshkhali Channel, Bay of Bengal, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Khan M.M.H., 2005, Temporal and spatial distribution of Ichthyofauna in the Karnafully River Estuary with special emphasis on physio-chemical parameters, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Khan Y.S.A., Ahammod M.S., and Hossain M.S., 1996, Sewage pollution in Chittagong metropolitan area, Bangladesh, Oriental Geographer, 40: 69-77

 

Khan Y.S.A., and Talukder A.B.M.A., 1993, Pollution in Coastal Waters of Bangladesh, The Journal of Noami, 10: 7-8

 

Khan Y.S.A., and Mahmood N., 1976, Preliminary observation of the hydrological condition of the Bay of Bengal of coast of Bangladesh, Journal of the Asiatic Society, Bangladesh (Sc.), 1: 112-117

 

Mannan M.A., 2006, On the study of organochlorine pesticides concentration in water sediment and some commercially important fishes in the Karnafully River, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong

 

Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock (MoFL), 2013, Impact of aquaculture drugs and chemicals on aquatic ecology and productivity

MoEF/GoB, 2005, National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) Final Report, pp.46

 

Molla M.H.R., Aktaruzzaman M., Mandol S., Al-Imran M., Sarkar M.S.I., and Islam M.S., 2014, Spatio-temporal variations of macrobenthic annelid community of the Karnafuli River Estuary, Chittagong, Bangladesh, International Journal of Marine Science, 4: 1-11

 

Mozumder M.M.H., 2003, Utilization of absorptionmetric optical density as a quick index of conventional pollution loads in municipal sewerage discharge canal, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

O’ Mallery L.S.S., 1908, E.B. Distric Gazetters, Chittagong, The Bengal Secretariat Book Depot, Calcutta

 

Pandey G.N., 1997, Environmental management, Vikas Publishing House Pvt Limited, p.404

 

Paul S., 1981, Effects of oil pollution upon planktonic organisms of the Karnafully River-estuary, M.Sc thesis, Deptt. Of Marine Biology, CU, Bangladesh

 

Pramanik M.A.H., 1988, Methodologies and techniques of studying coastal systems: Case Studies II, Space and Remote Sensing Organization (SPARSO), Bangladesh, pp.122-138

 

Quader O., 1978, Pollution of the Karnafully River Estuary and its effect on Apocreyptes bato, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Rahman M.H., 1994, Study on the accumulation of some trace metals dischargedfrom the KPM and KRC in the commercially important fishes of the Karnafully River near KPRC in relation to surrounding water, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Rizvi S.N.H., 1971, Bangladesh district Gaz.lters. Ctg. Govt, of Bangladesh, Service and General Administration Dept., Bangladesh Govt, press, Dhaka, pp.1-64

 

Sanjoy M., 2007, Ship breaking activities and its impacts on fishes and fisheries at Sitakunda coast, Chittagong, Bangladesh, M.S. thesis at IMSF, CU for partial fulfillment of the requirement for the M.S degree in Marine Science (Env. Br.)

 

Sarwar M.I., Majumder A.K.M., and Islam M.N., 2010, Water Quality Parameters: A Case Study of Karnafully River Chittagong, Bangladesh, Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 45: 177-181

https://doi.org/10.3329/bjsir.v45i2.5722

 

Sarker M.S.U., 2009, Water resources and aquatic biodiversity contributing socio-economic development of Bangladesh, Thirteenth International Water Technology Conference, IWTC 13, Hurghada, Egypt

 

Sarker S.U., 2004, Ecological assessment of herpeto-faunal diversity of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forests, Bangladesh: Environmental Issues and Conservation, J. NOAMI, 21: 69-86

 

Sarkar M.S.I., 2000, Solid waste management and preparation of compost for environmental improvement of Chittagong city, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Sarkar M.A.K., 1998, Study on the trace metals in water, sediment and jew fish (Otolithoides microdon) of the Karnafully River Estuary, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Sarker S.U., 1992, Wildlife resources in the coastal zone of Bangladesh and their environmental impacts and conservation, Workshop on Coastal Zone Management in Bangladesh, UNESCO/M&B/Unti, Dec., Dhaka, pp.1-23

 

Sarker S.U., 1991, Endangered and threatened wildlife of the coastal zone of Bangladesh, J. NOAMI, 3: 29-37

 

Sarker S.U., and Sarker N.J., 1988, Wildlife of Bangladesh: A Systematic List .Rico Publication, Dhaka

 

Sarker S.U., and Sarker N.J., 1986, Status and Distribution of Birds of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh, J. NOAMI, 3: 19-37

 

Sharif A.S.M., Islam M.S., and Bhuyan M.S., 2017, Spatio-temporal occurrence and distribution of copepod in the Karnafully river estuary, Bangladesh, Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 10: 271-282

 

SHED, 2002, Livelihood status of fishermen in the Karnafully River

 

Siddique M.A.M., and Aktar M., 2012, Heavy metals in salt marsh sediments of Porteresia Bed along the Karnafully River Coast, Chittagong, Soil and Water Research, 7: 117-123

 

Siddique H.M., 1990, Flood control and drainage development: physical and environmental issues, In: A.A Rahman, S. Huq and G.R. Coanway (eds.) Environment aspects of surface water systems of Bangladesh, Dhaka University Press Ltd., pp.104-108

 

Sikder M.N.A., Huq S.M.S., Mamun M.A.A., Hoque K.A., Bhuyan M.S., and Bakar M.A., 2016, Assessment of physicochemical parameters with its effects on human and aquatic animals giving special preference to effective management of Turag River, Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 10: 41-51

 

Shiklomanov I.A., 1993, World water resources, Water in Crisis, New York, Oxford

 

Tamanna H., and Hossain M.M., 2010, Temporal and Spatial variation of some heavy metals at selected sites of marine water in Chittagong, M.Sc thesis at Institute of Forestry & Environmental Sciences, CU. p.78 (unpublished)

 

Tsai C.F., and Ali L., 1987, The changes in fish community and major carp population in beels in Sylhet, Mymensingh basin, Bangladesh, Indian Journal of Fisheries, 34: 78-88

 

Tyler P.A., and Buckney R.T., 1973, Pollution of a Tasmanian River by mine effluents, I. Chemical evidence, International Review of Hydrobiology, 58: 873-883

https://doi.org/10.1002/iroh.19730580608

 

Uddin S.M., 2006, Determination of pollution status through study on the water quality in Karnafully River Estuary, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Uddin S.M.J., 1993, Environmental impact assesment (EIA) of the municipal sewage discharge through Majhirghat Canal of the Karnafully River Water, Chittagong, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

WHO, 1984, Guidelines for drinking water quality, Vol.1. Recommendation Geneva

 

Zafar M., 1986, Study on zooplankton of Satkhira in the vicinity of aquaculture farms with special reference to Penaeid post larvae, M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Marine Science and Fisheries, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh, pp.238

 

International Journal of Marine Science
• Volume 7
View Options
. PDF(858KB)
. FPDF
. HTML
. Online fPDF
Associated material
. Readers' comments
Other articles by authors
pornliz suckporn porndick pornstereo . Md. Simul Bhuyan
. Md. Shafiqul Islam
Related articles
. Industrial pollution
. Impacts
. Biota
. Development
. Karnafully River
Tools
. Email to a friend
. Post a comment