Research Report

Biochemical Composition of Three Commercial Fishes (Liza Vaigensis, Rastrelliger Kanagurta and Scomberioders tol) Collected from Sonmiani, Balochistan Coast of Pakistan  

Rashida Qari1 , Zahoor Munir2 , Farhad Aslam2
1 Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
2 Department of Marine Science, Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences, Pakistan
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Marine Science, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 39   doi: 10.5376/ijms.2017.07.0039
Received: 14 Aug., 2017    Accepted: 06 Sep., 2017    Published: 25 Sep., 2017
© 2017 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Qari R., Munir Z., and Aslam F., 2017, Biochemical composition of three commercially important fishes (Liza vaigiensis, Rastrelliger kanagurta and Scomberoides tol) collected from Sonmiani, Balochistan coast of Pakistan, International Journal of Marine Science, 7(39): 380-385 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2017.07.0039)

Abstract

This study reports the biochemical composition of three important edible commercial fish species (1. Liza vaigiensis 2. Rastrelliger kanagurta 3. Scomberoides tol) collected during surveys of fish harbor Dam Sonmiani Balochistan coast in February, 2017. The results demonstrate that protein value ranging from 40-52%, lipid 4-6%, carbohydrate 13.3-22%, ash 20-37.5%, moisture 2-6% and water 70.7-73.7%. This study records length, width and weight of each species too. There was positive significant relationship found in between biochemical constituents of all studied fishes.

Keywords
Liza vaigiensis; Rastrelliger kanagurta; Scomberoides tol; Measurement; Biochemical constituents

Introduction

Pakistan has a coast line of about 1120 km bordering Arabian Sea in the south at 23o50´N latitude that cover the Sindh and the Balochistan coast. Pakistan has considerable maritime zone, influenced by atmospheric forcing and reversing monsoons resulting in the strong seasonal variability in its oceanographic conditions (Turner and Annamalai, 2012). Pakistan Exclusive Economic Zone stretches 350 nautical miles seaward from the coast, provides 240,000 km2 area of the Arabian Sea for exploitation of resources. The Makran Balochistan coast from the Hub River to the border of Iran has narrow shelf and pockets of mangroves (Snedakar, 1984). The Sindh Karachi coast extends to Sir Creek on the Indian border.

 

Along Balochistan coast there are number of bays, i.e. Ormara, Gawadar, Pasni, and much large bays at Sonmiani and Jiwani. The coast is characterized by rocky and sandy. Churna and Astola are the two uninhabited islands found in Balochistan coast, and two tombolos; Gawadar and Ormara, and two Lagoons; Kalmat Khor and Miani Hor. Accept of some streams there is no major river discharge at this coast. In Gawadar bay, Kalmat Khor and Miani Hor some sections of mangroves are found. Its continental shelf is narrow and is about 6 km at Gawadar, while it extends to about 70 km in Sonmiani Bay.

 

Nazir et al., (2015) and FAO, (2014) reported that the fishing industry is the main source of income in Pakistan. Annually 10% of fishery products are exported. In 2002-2003 fish and fishery products were exported (valued US $117 million). During the years 2001 there was little increase in fish consumption from 1.0 kg to 2.3 kg, but this average is very low as compared to world fish consumption for the same time scale i.e. 9.0-16.3 kg (FAO, 2014).

 

Sea food especially fish is an important source of protein, minerals and omega-3- polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) for humans throughout the world (Ackman, 1989). Previous reports on the biochemical composition have been given by Munshi et al. (2005) and Nisa and Abdullah (2008; 2011) for the fishes collected from the coastal water of Pakistan. On the population dynamics recently Qamar et al. (2016) studied fishery of Megalaspis cordyla and Scomberoides tol from Pakistan.

 

Mullets and Mackerels fishes are commercially important found in coastal area of Pakistan. The Rastrelliger kanagurta (Indian mackerel) is commonly harvested throughout shallow waters of Pakistani coastal area (Moazzum et al., 2005). In Pakistan fish consumption is low due to socio economic factors. Peoples prefer low prices large fishes as compared to costly small size fishes. The principal biochemical constituents of fish are protein, lipid, carbohydrates, ash, moisture and water. The aim of the present study was to obtain the biochemical composition of Liza vaigiensis, Rastrelliger kanagurta and Scomberoides tol found in the coastal water of Balochistan.

 

1 Materials and Methods

Total twelve individuals of three species of fishes Liza vaigiensis, Rastrelliger kanagurta and Scomberoides tol were collected during surveys of fish harbor Dam Sonmiani Balochistan coast in February, 2017 (Figure 1). Sonmiani is one of the Tehsils of District Lasbela, located 80 km North West of Karachi and consisting of Dam Bunder, Sonmiani Tower Bhira and Baloch Goth. The sampling was done by using net having mesh size of approximately 2 cm2 with the assistance of local fishermen. The fishes were put in iced box and brought to laboratory, where species identification, body measurement and biochemical analysis on dry weight basis were carried out. First specimens were identified with the help of FAO (1985) identification guide book. Total three species of fishes have been collected belonging to Mugilidae, Scombridae and Carangidae families. The measurement (total length with tail, standard length and width) and weight (dry and wet) of each specimen were also taken with the help of measurement tape and digital balance respectively.

 

 

Figure 1 Map showing satellite view of Miani Hor (Dam)

 

The fish samples were dried at 70oC for 24 hours till a constant weight was achieved. The samples were then homogenized with a porcelain pestle and mortar to a powder form, sieved and stored in plastic bottle until further analysis for biochemical parameters. The carbohydrate was estimated by using phenol sulphuric acid method (Dubois et al., 1956). The concentration of proteins was determined by Lowry’s method (1951) whereas the total lipid was extracted by soxhlet extraction method (Folch et al., 1957). Ash or total inorganic content and moisture were also determined by the standard method of A.O.A.C (1990).

 

2 Results and Discussion

The total length with tail, standard length and width of Scomberoides tol was greater than the other two species Liza vaigiensis and Rastrelliger kanagurta (Table 1). The mean total length with tail of Scomberoides tol was 10.8± 0.2 cm and both Liza vaigiensis 8.7± 0.23 cm and Rastrelliger kanagurta have 8.7± 0.1 cm whereas standard mean length of Scomberoides tol was 9.6± 0.34 cm and both Liza vaigiensis and Rastrelliger kanagurta have 8.4± 0.22 cm and 8± 0.2 cm respectively. The width of Scomberoides tol was 3.2± 0.23 cm and both Liza vaigiensis and Rastrelliger kanagurta have 2.5± 0.24 cm and 2.5± 0.34 cm respectively.

 

 

Table 1 Variation in average size of fishes (Liza vaigiensis, Rastrelliger kanagurta and Scomberoides tol) collected from Sonmiani Balochistan coast

 

The mean fresh weight of Scomberoides tol (164± 2.22 g) was also greater than the other two species Liza vaigiensis (140± 2.4 g) and Rastrelliger kanagurta (122± 2.13 g) like size (Table 2). Whereas mean dry weight of Scomberoides tol was (48± 2.8 g) Liza vaigiensis (38± 2.11 g) and Rastrelliger kanagurta (32± 2.0 g). The water content was high in Rastrelliger kanagurta (73.7%) as compared to Liza vaigiensis (72.8%) and Scomberoides tol (70.7) (Table 2).

 

 

Table 2 Variation in water content of fishes (Liza vaigiensis, Rastrelliger kanagurta and Scomberoides tol) collected from Sonmiani Balochistan coast

 

The highest carbohydrate content was found in Liza vaigiensis (22%) as compared to other species Scomberoides tol (20.4%) and Rastrelliger kanagurta (13.3%) (Figure 2). Protein concentration was high in Scomberoides tol (52%) as compared to other species Liza vaigiensis (48%) and Rastrelliger kanagurta (40%) whereas ash was high in Rastrelliger kanagurta (37.5%) and low in Liza vaigiensis (20%) and Scomberoides tol (21%) (Figure 2). The mullet fish Liza vaigiensis has high concentration of moisture (6%) as compared to both mackerel fishes Rastrelliger kanagurta (4%) and Scomberoides tol (2%) (Figure 2).

 

 

Figure 2 Biochemical compositions of Liza vaigiensis, Rastrelliger kanagurta and Scomberoides tol collected from Sonmiani Balochistan coast

 

Correlation of both total length and width with fresh weight was r2 = 0.904 (Figure 3; Figure 4). Both total and standard length and width have positive significant relationship with carbohydrate (r2 = 0.642, r2 = 0.807 and r2 = 0.642 respectively) and moisture (r2 = 0.866, r2 = 0.721 and r2 = 0.866 respectively) (Figure 5; Figure 6). It is also observed that there was positive significant relationship was found in between biochemical constituents of Scomberoides tol and Rastrelliger kanagurta (r2 = 0.935), Scomberoides tol and Liza vaigiensis (r2 = 0.995) and Rastrelliger kanagurta and Liza vaigiensis (r2 = 0.937) (Figures 7; Figure 8; Figure 9).

 

 

Figure 3 Correlation of total length with fresh weight

 

 

Figure 4 Correlation of width with fresh weight

 

 

Figure 5 Relationship between total length and carbohydrate of Liza vaigiensis, Rastrelliger kanagurta and Scomberoides tol collected from Sonmiani Balochistan coast

 

 

Figure 6 Relationship between width and carbohydrate of Liza vaigiensis, Rastrelliger kanagurta and Scomberoides tol collected from Sonmiani Balochistan coast

 

 

Figure 7 Relationship between biochemical constituents of Squaretail mullet and Indian mackerel collected from Sonmiani Balochistan coast

 

 

Figure 8 Relationship between biochemical constituents of Queen fish and Squaretail mullet collected from Sonmiani Balochistan coast

 

 

Figure 9 Relationship between biochemical constituents of Indian mackerel and Queen fish collected from Sonmiani Balochistan coast

 

Results analysis on the analysis of biochemical composition of marine fishes of Balochistan Liza vaigiensis, Rastrelliger kanagurta and Scomberoides tol are very similar with results obtain from seawater of Pakistan (Munshi et al., 2005; Nisa and Asadullah, 2011) and other marine water fishes like Elham (1991) and fresh water (Anwarul, 2015; Anthony et al., 2016). The values obtained for lipid in the present study are similar to the results of Anthony et al. (2016). Whereas protein values are greater than the results obtain by Elham (1991) and Anthony et al. (2016). It is also noted that an inverse relationship is found in between carbohydrate and moisture in the present study.

 

Water serves as a medium of transportation for food substances such as protein, fat and carbohydrate to the cell, organs and various parts of the fish. From the present observation it may be concluded that high ash content was associated with high minerals both major and minor elements. The variation in biochemical composition in between all three fishes is may be due to the variation in the movement that they perform and quality and quantity of food that they are eat (Murray and Burt, 1969). Today man need is energy rich food; therefore it is necessary to find out new small and large fishes that are available abundantly all the year round. In present study all three fishes available all year round are good in palatability and suitability for man consumption.

 

3 Conclusions

From the results it is concluded that these studied fishes (Liza vaigiensis, Rastrelliger kanagurta and Scomberoides tol) are good protein source (40-52%). Further experimentation should be conducted with the samples of season through a year for getting biochemical variation in a year. It is also concluded that information and knowledge of biochemical composition are also the important factor for the consumption and marketing of fishes besides the taste, weight, size and freshness.

 

Authors’ contributions

Munir Z. and Aslam F. carried out the field work for data collection and also conducted the experiment. Qari R. designed, interpreted the data, made figures, statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript.

 

Acknowledgments

The researchers Munir Z. and Aslam F. wished to acknowledge the Institute of Marine Science (University of Karachi) for providing laboratory facilities.

 

References

Akman R.G., 1989, Nutritional composition of fats in sea foods, Progress in Food and Nutrition Science, 13: 161-241

 

Anthony O., Richard J., and Lucky E., 2016, Biochemical composition of five fish species (C. laticeps; D. rostratus; S. schall; S. mystus and H. bebe) from river Niger in Edo State, Nigeria, International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 4(3): 507-512

 

Anwarul Hasan G.M.M., Hossain S., and Begum M., 2015, Biochemical composition of Rui (Labeo rohita), Catla (Catla catla), Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) of cultured ponds and different markets of Bangladesh, International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology (IJRASET), 3(1): 222-226

 

A.O.A.C., 1990, Official methods of analysis, 15th edition, Association Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia, pp.684

 

Connor W.E., Neuringer M., and Reisbick S., 1991, Essential fatty acids: the importance of n-3 fatty acids in the retina and brain, Nutr, Rev., 50(4): 21-29

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.1992.tb01286.x

 

Dubios M., Gilles K.A., Hamilton J.K., Rebers P.A., and Smith F., 1956, Colorimetric method for determination of sugars, Anal, Chem. 28: 350

https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60111a017

 

FAO, 1985, Species identification sheets for fishery purposes field guide commercial marine and brackish water species of Pakistan, Rome

 

FAO, 2014, The state of world fisheries and aquaculture opportunities and challenges, Rome

 

Folch J., Lees M., and Sloane-Slanley G.H., 1957, A simplest method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues JBC, 226: 497-509

 

Lowry O.H., Rosebrough N.J., Farr A.L., and Randall R.J., 1951, J. Biol. Chem., 193: 265

 

Moazzum M., Baber H.O., and Zohra K., 2005, Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) from Pakistan-I, Some aspect of biology and fisheries, Records Zoological Survey of Pakistan, 16: 58-75

 

Munshi A.B., Ali S.A., and Shakir S., 2005, Seasonal variation in biochemical composition of sardines and mullet from Pakistani waters, Jour. Chem. Soc. Pak. 27(2): 190-193

 

Murray J., and Burt J.R., 1969, The composition of fish, Torry Advis, Note 38, Torry Research Station, Aberdeen

 

Nazir K., Yongtong M., Kalhoro M.A., Memon K.H., Mohsin M., and Kartika S., 2015, A preliminary study on fisheries economy of Pakistan: plan of actions for fisheries management in Pakistan, Canadian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ©PEARL publication, CJBAS 3(1): 7-17, ISSN 2292-3381

 

Nisa K., and Abdullah K., 2011, Seasonal variation in chemical composition of the Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) from Karachi coast, Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 10 (1): 67-74

 

Qamar N., Panhwar S.K. and Brouwer S., 2016, Population characteristics and biological reference point estimates for two carangid fishes, Megalaspis cordyla and Scomberoides tol in the Northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan, Pakistan J. Zool. 48(3): 869-874

 

Qari R., and Ahmed S., 2014, Heavy metal distribution in Avicennia marina from Bhira village, Sonmiani, Balochistan coast, Journal of Shipping and Ocean Engineering 4: 38-42

 

Rasool F., Tunio S., Hasnain S.A. and Ahmad E., 2002, Mangrove conservation along the coast of Sonmiani, Balochistan, Pakistan, Trees, 16: 213

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-001-0151-5

 

Sikonski Z.E., 2002, Chemical and functional properties of food components series, CRC Press

 

The State of Food and Agriculture, 2004, Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations

 

Snedaker S.C., 1984, A summary of knowledge with emphasis on Pakistan, Proceeding of a workshop held at National Institute of Oceanography, Karachi

 

Turner A.G., and Annamalai H., 2012, Climate change and the South Asian summer monsoon, Nature Climate Change, 2: 587–595

https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1495

International Journal of Marine Science
• Volume 7
View Options
. PDF(636KB)
. FPDF
. HTML
. Online fPDF
Associated material
. Readers' comments
Other articles by authors
pornliz suckporn porndick pornstereo . Rashida Qari
. Zahoor Munir
. Farhad Aslam
Related articles
. Liza vaigiensis
. Rastrelliger kanagurta
. Scomberoides tol
. Measurement
. Biochemical constituents
Tools
. Email to a friend
. Post a comment