Research Article

Effects of Urbanization on the Heavy Metal Concentrations in the Red Sea Coastal Sediments, Egypt  

Mohamed E.A. El-Metwally , Ahmed S. Abouhend , Mahmoud A. Dar , Khalid M. El-Moselhy
Division of Marine Environment, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Egypt
Author    Correspondence author
International Journal of Marine Science, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 13   doi: 10.5376/ijms.2017.07.0013
Received: 20 Mar., 2017    Accepted: 14 Apr., 2017    Published: 04 May, 2017
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

El-Metwally M.E.A., Abouhend A.S., Dar M.A., and El-Moselhy K.M., 2017, Effects of urbanization on the heavy metal concentrations in the Red Sea coastal sediments, Egypt, International Journal of Marine Science, 7(13): 114-124 (doi: 10.5376/ijms.2017.07.0013)


The total concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni and Co) were determined in surface sediments from the coastal area of the Red Sea in four cities (Ras-Gharib, Hurghada, Safaga, and Qusier). In all sediment samples, the mean concentration ranges in (µg/g) of the studied metals were 11.2-145.3, 14.2-225.5, 18.5-90.8, 1.4-5.6, 1373-31,089, 72.5-758.5, 15.3-65.7 and 10.2-26.3, respectively. The effects of population pressure and different activities on metal contamination were evaluated, and metals were grouped according to sources of contamination using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Maritime activities in Hurghada showed highest risk of contamination with Cu, Zn and Pb, while the sediments of Safaga City showed highest contaminated with Fe and Mn. The sediments quality and ecological risk of heavy metals were assessed relating to the sediments background levels of metals and calculating contamination factor (CF), metal pollution load index (MPI), enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo). Average values of EF showed that Pb and Cd were highly enriched from anthropogenic contamination. The recorded (Igeo) values of Co and Cd were categorized as moderately polluted, while Pb was strongly effective pollutant in the studied sediments.

Heavy metals; Pollution; Red Sea; Sediments; Ecological risk
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