Heavy Metal Levels in Water, Sediment and Tissues of Sarotherodon melanotheron from the Upper Bonny Estuary, Nigeria and Their Human Health Implications
George Nnabugwu Anaero-Nweke
Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
International Journal of Marine Science, 2018, Vol. 8, No. 23
Received: 17 Jul., 2018 Accepted: 20 Aug., 2018 Published: 14 Sep., 2018
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Abstract This study was aimed to investigate the levels of heavy metals in water, sediment and tissues (gills, muscle and liver) of Sarotherodon melanotheron, from the Upper Bonny Estuary in the Niger Delta and evaluate their human health Implications. Water, sediment and S. melanotheron samples were collected and caught from 5 different stations namely; Okochiri Creek (S1), Ekerekana Creek (Point of Industrial Effluent Discharge (POD) (S2), Okari-Ama Creek(S3), Ogoloma Creek (S4) and Bonny Estuary (control). The levels of Cr, Ni, Zn, V, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As were analysed following Standard Procedures using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Metals analysed were below detectable limit in water while metals such as Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn and V were below permissible limit in sediment SQG (USEPA, 1 999). Ecological Indices further proved that the area is unpolluted with the studied metals in sediment. The levels in the tissues (gill, muscle and liver) showed varying concentration. Ni concentration exceeded permissible limits FAO/WHO, (2010) in the tissues of the studied fish, Cr were above permissible limit in most tissues, while Pb was only detected in the muscle of S. melanotheron caught from Okari-ama Creek (S3) which was above permissible limit and Bonny Estuary (control, S5) below permissible limit. other parameters such as Zn and V were below permissible limit FAO/WHO, (2010) these values were not significantly different using turkeys multiple comparison at P<0.05. Cd, As, and Hg were not detected in all samples. BSAF showed bio-accumulative potentials in the tissues studied in most stations. Further calculations on the risk associated with consumption of S. melanotheron showed that HQ and HI were < 1 which showed no threat to public health. Hence, more studies on other metals should be encouraged and proper monitoring of the entire river should also be encouraged by regulatory agencies in Nigeria to prevent further bioaccumulation of heavy metals.
Heavy metals; Sarotherodon melanotheron; Bioaccumulation; Risk assessments; Upper Bonny Estuary
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International Journal of Marine Science
• Volume 8