Insecticide confrontation in Dengue vector: Enzymatic Characterization of tolerance level in the Mysore field populations of Aedes aegypti.  

Vasanth Patil H.B.1,2 , Nithin K S.3 , Sathish Kumar B.Y.1
1. Postgraduate Department of Studies and Research in Bio-technology, University of Mysore, JSS College, Ooty Road, Mysore – 570 025, INDIA
2. JSS Research Foundation (University of Mysore), Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Manasagangothri, Mysore, INDIA
3. Postgraduate Department of Studies and Research in Chemistry, University of Mysore, JSS College, Ooty Road, Mysore – 570 025, INDIA

Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2015, Vol. 5, No. 15   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2015.05.0015
Received: 30 Apr., 2015    Accepted: 02 Jun., 2015    Published: 29 Sep., 2015
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Vasanth Patil H.B., Nithin K.S., and Sathish Kumar B.Y., 2015, Insecticide Confrontation in Dengue Vector: Enzymatic Characterization of Tolerance Level in the Mysore Field Populations of Aedes aegypti, Journal of Mosquito Research, Vol.5, No.15 1-14 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2015.05.0015)

Abstract

The susceptibility status of an insect population to any insecticide depends on several factors such includes genetic constitution, ecology of breeding place, previous history of insecticide application if any in that area and the cross resistance spectra. In view of the frequent outbreaks of dengue in different parts of the country and Karnataka state, in particular Mysore and surrounding districts, it is felt essential to generate a base line data on the susceptibility of vectors of local importance and their genetic differentiation through biochemical markers. Resistance to insecticides developed by Aedes aegypti was biochemically detected among its population collected from five different urban areas of Mysore city and from four rural locations of Mysore, Mandya and Hassan districts. Insect larvae exposed to different concentrations of insecticide - Deltamethrin for 24 hr. Insecticide resistance/tolerance level in terms of LC50 and LC90 for the insecticide was high in rural population than urban. Correspondingly, the reason for the resistance was detected through qualitative and quantitative analysis of three biochemical marker enzymes viz., A-Esterase, B-Esterase, Dehydrogenase (G6PD), and Phosphtases (Acid, Alkaline). The allelic frequency of Esterases and Phosphatases was more in rural over urban populations and the same was implied in quantitative estimation also. Wherein the allelic frequency of both the Phosphatases remains same in all the populations but the enzyme concentration was elevated in rural over the urban populations. The inspection of the present study reveals that, the Mysore populations of Ae. aegypti shows much variation for which their ecology was responsible.

Keywords
Deltamethrin; Esterases; G6PD-Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase; Acid Phosphatase; Alkaline Phosphatase

Introduction
Arthropods being haematophagous (blood sucking) have the ability to behave and demeanor as vector; found to transmit human diseases, where many viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths parasites make use of such species for transmission between the vertebrate hosts. Historically, major vector born diseases viz., malaria, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and plague were responsible for most life threatening pathological conditions in humans (Gubler, 1991). Not long after the discovery in 1877 that mosquitoes transmitted filariasis from human to human, malaria (1898), yellow fever (1900) and dengue (1903) to have similar transmission cycles. By 1910, other major vector-borne diseases such as African sleeping sickness, pwere shown lague, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, relapsing fever, chagas disease, sandfly fever and louse-borne typhus had all been shown to require a blood-sucking arthropod vector for transmission to humans (Philip & Rozenboom, 1973).
 
Vector born Dengue viruses are flaviviruses and its four serotypes DEN-1, 2, 3 and 4 sequentially causes infections and are responsible for Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) in humans. The viruses are transmitted to man by the bite of infective mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti and secondarily by Aedes albopictus. DHF is characterized by increased vascular permeability, hypovolaemia and abnormal blood clotting mechanisms. Due to rapid growth of urban centers the rainwater harvesting in diverse types of containers resulting in multiple storage practices and provided the place for breeding vector species. Before the advent of DDT in 1939, vectors were controlled by environmental sanitation and with non-synthetic chemicals especially plant products. However, in the past few decades a galaxy of synthetic residual insecticides flooded the field of public health and agriculture. Later with the development of organophosphorus compounds, a new era of insect and pest control began (Hassal, 1982). Unfortunately, problems and backlashes have emerged; indiscriminate use of insecticides in the control of insect pests has led to resistance development by the target species and also eliminated natural enemies. Large quantities of four classes of insecticides viz., organochlorines, organophosphates and carbamates, are applied annually to fields or indoors in China, directly or indirectly bringing heavy selection pressure on vector populations. One among the seven major species of vector mosquito in China was Ae. aegypti wherein all have evolved resistance to all the above types of insecticide except the carbamates (Feng et al., 2006). The degree of resistance varies among mosquito species, insecticide classes and regions. To overcome such problems and in the background of the failure of organochlorides and organophosphates in many foci, search for new compounds have been undertaken throughout the world. With the result, more safe and degrada

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