Research Article

Larvicidal and Pupicidal Toxicities of Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus Leaf Essential Oils against Three Mosquito Species  

Danga Yinyang Simon Pierre , Nukenine Elias Nchiwan , Esimone Charles Okechukwu , Younoussa Lame
1. Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, PO Box 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon
2. Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology & Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Agulu, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, PMB 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2014, Vol. 4, No. 2   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2014.04.0002
Received: 25 Dec., 2013    Accepted: 03 Jan., 2014    Published: 26 Mar., 2014
© 2014 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Pierre et al., 2014, Larvicidal and Pupicidal Activities of Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus Leaf Essential Oils against Three Mosquito Species, Journal of Mosquito Research, Vol.4, No.2 5-14 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2014.01.0002)

Abstract

Objective: To determine the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal potencies of Cameroonian Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus leaf essential oils against 4th instar larvae and early pupae of Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

Methods:
Twenty five early 4th instar larvae and early pupae of An. gambiae, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations ranging from 12.5-500 ppm and 2000 ppm for DDVP. The standard protocol of WHO 2005 was followed up under laboratory conditions. The larval and pupal mortalities were observed 24 h post-exposure. Probit analysis was used to determine the LC50 and LC90

Results:
The essential oil of the two plants showed significant larvicidal and pupicidal potential against all the target mosquito species. P. glandulosus caused LC50 values of 2.66, 7.37 and 43.16 ppm against Ae. aegypti, An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae, respectively and 27.22, 22.60 and 104.75 ppm against Ae. aegypti, An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus pupae, respectively. C. rigidus displayed LC50 values of 66.67, 99.61 and 176.81 ppm against Ae. aegypti, An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae, respectively and 50.95, 47.63 and 307.19 ppm against Ae. aegypti, An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus pupae, respectively

Conclusion:
These results suggest that the Cameroonian P. glandulosus and C. rigidus leaf essential oils can be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach that may replace DDVP, the synthetic chemical, for vector control programs.

Keywords
Plectranthus glandulosus; Callistemon rigidus; Essential oil; Mosquito larvicide; Mosquito pupicide
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