Mosquitocidal activity of Anacardium occidentale, Afromomum melegueta, Garcina kola and Citrus sinensis against the developmental stages of mosquito, Anopheles gambiae Giles  

K.D. Ileke1 , O. J.  Afolabi2 , O.C. Ogungbite2 , J.O. Olayinka-Olagunju1 , O.M. Akanbi 1
1 Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries, Faculty of Science, Adekunle Ajasin University, P.M.B 001, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Biology, School of Science, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2014, Vol. 4, No. 3   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2014.04.0003
Received: 19 Feb., 2014    Accepted: 03 May, 2014    Published: 24 Jun., 2014
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Ileke et al., 2014, Mosquitocidal activity of Anacardium occidentale, Afromomum melegueta, Garcina kola and Citrus sinensis against the developmental stages of mosquito, Anopheles gambiae Giles, Journal of Mosquito Research, Vol.4, No.3 21-26 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2014.01.0003)

Abstract
The insecticidal potential of Anacardium occidentale, Afromomum melegueta, Garcina kola and Citrus sinensis plants were tested against malaria vector, mosquito, Anopheles gambiae in the laboratory at ambient temperature of (28±2) and relative humidity of (75±5)%. The oils of the four plants were extracted with hexane and they were prepared at concentration of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5%. The larvae and pupae of An. gambiae Giles were exposed to these concentrations of the plant oils for 24 hours and mortality was recorded at this periods. At all levels of concentrations, mortality of both the larvae and pupae of this insect increased with increase in the concentrations regardless the type of plant extract used. However, A. occidentale oil extract showed more insecticidal effect on both the larvae and pupae of An. gambiae at all concentrations but its effect was not significantly (p>0.05) different from oil of A. melegueta and C. sinensis at 0.1% to 0.3% concentrations. The oil extract of G. kola showed the lowest mortality effect on both the larvae and pupae of the insect at all concentrations but the effect was significantly (p<0.05) different from the control. It was observed that the larvae of An. gambiae were more susceptible to the oil extracts of all the plants tested. All the plants extracts used in this work showed high potency to larval and pupal mortality and could consequently be used to reduce prevalence of malaria in the endemic areas.
Keywords
Mosquito; Malaria; Anacardium occidentale; Afromomum melegueta; Garcina kola; Citrus sinensis
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