Morphometric differentiation of sympatric populations of Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Anopheles gambiae Giles from Republic of Southern Sudan  

Asma Mahmoud Hamza1 , Sumaia Mohamed Ahmed Abukashawa2 , El Amin El-Rayah2
1. Department of Biology, Faculty of Education, University of Kassala, Kassala State, Sudan
2. Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2014, Vol. 4, No. 14   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2014.04.0014
Received: 08 Jun., 2014    Accepted: 13 Jul., 2014    Published: 23 Aug., 2014
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Hamza et al., 2014, Morphometric Differentiation of Sympatric Populations of Anopheles arabiensis Patton and Anopheles gambiae Giles from Republic of Southern Sudan, Journal of Mosquito Research, Vol.4, No.11 1-11 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2014.04.0011)

Abstract

Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex, namely Anopheles arabiensis (Patton, 1905) and Anopheles gambiae (Giles, 1902) are the major vectors of human malaria in the African continent. The study is mainly conducted to investigate the morphometrics of members of An. gambiae complex in Republic of Southern Sudan. A morphometric multivariate analysis was carried out to investigate the morphological variations among sympatric populations of An. arabiensis and An. gambiae and to assess the degree of discrimination of the two fresh water species. Members of the An. gambiae complex were collected by hand capture from Wau town, Republic of Southern Sudan during the rainy season of 2010. Sixty nine morphometric characters were examined. A discriminant function analysis correctly identified An. arabiensis and An. gambiae to a confidence level reaching 85.2%. The best discriminating characters (in a decreasing order) selected by the analysis were: sector pale spot, tarsomere 4 of the fore leg, pre-sector pale spot, tarsomere 5 of the hind leg and tarsus of the fore leg. This morphometric method showed that females An. arabiensis and An. gambiae were not significantly different in the body size measurements. The morphometric analysis revealed the existence of a considerable degree of differentiation for some metric morphological characters among the females An. arabiensis and An. gambiae.

Keywords
Anopheles arabiensis; Anopheles gambiae; Morphometric; Principal component analysis; Discriminant function analysis; Republic of Southern Sudan
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