Larval control of Culex vishnui group through bio-active fraction of traveller's tree, Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn. (Strelitziaceae)  

Kuntal Bhattacharya , Ipsha Chandra , Priyanka Kundu , Sayoni Ray , Debashis Halder , Goutam Chandra
Mosquito, Microbiology and Nanotechnology Research Units, Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan-713104, West Bengal, India
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2014, Vol. 4, No. 15   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2014.04.0015
Received: 29 Jul., 2014    Accepted: 31 Aug., 2014    Published: 01 Sep., 2014
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Preferred citation for this article:

Bhattacharya et al., 2014, Larval control of Culex vishnui group through bio-active fraction of traveller’s tree, Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn. (Strelitziaceae), Journal of Mosquito Research, Vol.4, No.14 1-6 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2014.04.0014)

Abstract

Background and objectives: Due to ever increasing resistance against synthetic insecticides, mosquito control is fetching a serious problem all over the world. It is imperative to manage the vector population to conquer the mosquito born diseases. The present study was carried out to assess the target specific larvicidal activity of Ravenala madagascariensis against Culex vishnui group, the vector of Japanese Encephalitis.

Methods: Crude extracts of R. madagascariensis matureleaves (foliages) ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% concentrations were tested against all the larval instars of Cx. vishnui group. Solvent extractions of matureleaves were carried out through three different solvents viz. petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and acetone from non-polar to polar trend. Larvicidal activities of the active fractions were examined against all the larval instars with graded concentrations ranging from 50 ppm to 250 ppm. LC 50 and LC90 values were determined by log-probit analyses. Further statistical justifications were done through ANOVA analyses. Effectiveness of the bioactive fractions against non-target populations was executed in laboratory conditions. Phytochemical screening of leaf extract was also carried out.

Result and Discussion: At 72 hours post-exposure, highest mortality (100%) with crude extract was found at 0.5% concentrations against all the instars. Amongst the three bioactive fractions, ethyl acetate extractives showed the highest larval mortality. After 72 hours of exposure, 200 ppm and 250 ppm concentration showed 100% mortality against 1st and 2nd instars larvae respectively. A 96.00% reduction in 3rd instars mosquito population was recorded after 72 hours at 250 ppm concentration. However, 4th instars larvae were subjected to only 84.00% reduction with these experimental set up and at 250 ppm concentration. The results of log probit analyses (95% confidence level) showed that LC50 and LC90 values were gradually decreased with the exposure periods having the lowest value at 72 h of exposure to 1st instars larvae followed by 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars larvae. Mortality rate (Y) was found to be positively correlated with the concentration (X) having a regression coefficient (R2) close to 1 in each case. Phytochemical analyses revealed the qualitative presence of tannin, steroid and alkaloid free glycoside bound anthraquinones. Non target organisms were non-responsive to the bioactive fractions obtained from the plant throughout the experiment.

Conclusion:
From the above experiment it can be concluded that the mature leaves (foliages) of R. madagascariensis may be a superior larvicide alternative to the synthetic one.

Keywords
Ethyl acetate extract; Culex vishnui group; Larvicide; Phytochemical screening
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