Larviciding potency of water and ethanol extracts of Phytolacca dodecandra (L’ Herit) on Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)   

Jared Owiti Yugi1 , Joash Barack Okeyo-Owuor2 , Caleb Awiti Auma1 , Jacqueline India Juma1 , Pamela Were Kogogo4 , John M Vulule3
1. Department of Applied Sciences, Kisumu Polytechnic, P. O. Box 143-40100, Kisumu-Kenya
2. School of Agriculture, Natural resource and Environmental Studies, Rongo University College, P.O. Box 103-40404, Rongo-Kenya
3. Centre for Global Health Research/Kenya Medical research Institute, P. O. Box 1578-4100, Kisumu-Kenya
4. School of Biological and Physical Sciences, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Technical Univerity, P. O. Box 210-40601, Bondo-Kenya

Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2015, Vol. 5, No. 2   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2015.05.0002
Received: 10 Dec., 2014    Accepted: 23 Feb., 2015    Published: 05 Mar., 2015
© 2015 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract

Introduction: Plant extracts are an attractive target for search of effective malaria vector control agents. The reason for this is that they present a cost effective, target specific and bio-degradable insecticides. The other reason is that they posses varied phytochemical contents that vectors are unlikely to develop resistance to very soon. In this study, we report on effectiveness of ethanol and water extracts of Phytolacca dodecandra (L’ Herit) against Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. Methods: Crude ethanol and water extracts of leaves (shoot and midsection) and mature green fruits of P. dodecandra were scrutinized for larvicidal activity against 1st to 4th instar larvae of An. gambiae. Larvicidal bioassays were conducted and effectiveness evaluated using the >80% as per the WHO methods and threshold respectively. ANOVA analyses were performed for statistical justifications of the larvicidal property with P considered significant at p < 0.05. The effects of the extracts were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Result:Ethanol extractswere more potent than water extracts of P. dodecandra as larvicide. The highest mortality (56%) was recorded for L4s for ethanol extracts of mature green fruits of Endod sourced from Eldoret. Water extracts of Neem leaves killed 31% L3s while deltamethrin killed over 80% of all exposed larvae. Conclusion:Ethanol extracts P. dodecandra killed more of the exposed An. gambiae larvae than water extracts. Recorded mortalities due to exposure to the extracts were less than the WHO threshold of >80%. We recommend that additional refinement and tests need to be done before commercial exploitation as a malaria vector larvicide.

Keywords
Anopheles gambiae; Phytolacca dodecandra; Azadirachta indica; Deltamethrin; Ethanol
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