Larvicidal Efficacy of Cola gigantea, Malacantha alnifolia and Croton zambesicus Extracts as Phytoinsecticides Against Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: culicidae)  

A. R. Jose1 , J. M. Adesina2
1. Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P. M. B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria
2. Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, P. M. B. 1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2015, Vol. 5, No. 5   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2015.05.0005
Received: 02 Feb., 2015    Accepted: 18 Apr., 2015    Published: 05 May, 2015
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Preferred citation for this article:

Jose and Adesina, 2015, Larvicidal Efficacy of Cola gigantea, Malacantha alnifolia and Croton zambesicus Extracts as Phytoinsecticides Against Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: culicidae), Journal of Mosquito Research, Vol.5, No.5 1-5 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2015.05.0005)

Abstract

Malaria is transmitted by Anopheles stephensi and in controlling the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the vector mosquito has to be controlled. Extensive use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in environmental hazards and also in development of physiological resistance among vector mosquito species. Plant products are considered to be a potential alternative approach as they are environmentally safe, target specific and biodegradable. The n-hexane extracts of three plants viz., leaves of Cola gigantea, Malacantha alnifolia and Croton zambesicus were evaluated against mosquito third instar larvae under ambient laboratory condition at Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. The larvicidal effects of the three plant species were tested at the following dosages: 0ml; 2ml; 4ml and 5ml. Larval mortality toxicity was calculated after 24 hours exposure period and the results obtained show that all the extracts exerted varying significant (P<0.05) percentages of larvae mortality effect; extract of C. gigantea was found to have the highest mortality rate at LC50 and LC90. From the phytochemical screening conducted on the plants, it was observed that the plants contain some secondary metabolites which are likely responsible for the larvicidal properties exhibited by the tested plants. The plants extracts show to be promising alternative to synthetic insecticides in malaria vector control programme and its adoption is advocated. Further studies need to be conducted to isolate and characterize the active molecules present in the plants.

Keywords
Malaria vector; Larvicidal; Phytochemical; Secondary metabolites; Toxicity
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