Research Article

Morphometrics Studies on Females Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) from Kassala State, Eastern Sudan  

Asma Mahmoud Hamza1 , Sumaia Mohamed Ahmed Abukashawa2 , El Amin El Rayah2
1. Department of Biology, Faculty of Education, University of Kassala, Kassala State, Sudan
2. Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2016, Vol. 6, No. 6   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2016.06.0006
Received: 28 Sep., 2015    Accepted: 19 Dec., 2015    Published: 28 Jan., 2016
© 2016 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Hamza A.M., Abukashawa S.M.A., and El Rayah El-A., 2016, Morphometrics Studies on Females Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) from Kassala State, Eastern Sudan, Journal of Mosquito Research, 6(6): 1-13 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2016.06.0006)

Abstract

Anopheles arabiensis Patton (1905) is the most important malaria vector in Sudan. A morphometric analysis was carried out to characterize the morphology of adult females An. arabiensis and to test the existence of morphological variations among local populationsof females An. arabiensis found in eastern Sudan.Adult females An. arabiensis were collected from four sites in Kassala State, eastern Sudan (Kassala, New Halfa, Aroma and Wager). In addition, An. arabiensis specimens, obtained from Sennar laboratory colony were also used in the study. Collection of females An. arabiensis mosquitoes was done by hand capture during the rainy season 2008. Thirty seven morphological characters were examined on samples representing each of the collection sites. One Way ANOVA testshowed significant differences in most of the measured characters on females An. arabiensis. Principal component analysis showed that the populations studied differed mainly in the body size of mosquito. A discriminant function analysis was used, based on the new variables generated by principal component analysis, to select an aggregate of morphological characters which collectively could differentiate local populations of females An. arabiensis and to assess the reliability associated with multivariate statistics. Using the body size measurements, the analysis revealed that geographical clustering of field collected females An. arabiensis populations were not clear and the body size characters had little discrimination values. The cluster analysis summarized the phylogenetic relationships among the different populations of An. arabiensis according to their mean body sizes. Laboratory colony samples had a smaller body size compared to the field collected ones. The morphometric analysis confirmed the existence of some geographical variations in the mosquito body size among local populations of An. arabiensis in eastern Sudan.

Keywords
Anopheles arabiensis; Morphometrics; Principal component analysis; Discriminant function analysis; Cluster analysis; Sudan; Kassala
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