Research Article

Seasonal Distribution and Micro-Climatic Factors Influencing the Abundance of the Malaria Vectors in South-East Nigeria  

Ebuka Kingsley Ezihe1 , Friday Maduka Chikezie2 , Chukwudi Micheal Egbuche3 , Edith N. Nwankwo3 , Angus Ejidikeme Onyido3 , Dennis Aribodor3 , Musa Lazarus Samdi4
1 National Arbovirus and Vectors Research centre, Nigeria
2 Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Uyo, Nigeria
3 Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
4 Abt Associates, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 3   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2017.07.0003
Received: 21 Jul., 2016    Accepted: 05 Oct., 2016    Published: 03 Mar., 2017
© 2017 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Ezihe E.K., Chikezie F.M., Egbuche C.M., Nwankwo E.N., Onyido A.E., Aribodor D., and Samdi M.L., 2017, Seasonal distribution and micro-climatic factors influencing the abundance of the malaria vectors in south-east Nigeria, Journal of Mosquito Research, 7(3): 15-26 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2017.07.0003)

Abstract

The longitudinal study was conducted in the South-east of Nigeria from April, 2013 to February 2014 to investigate the seasonal abundance of anophelines and their correlation with microclimatic variables. Sampling of Anopheles mosquitoes was done using WHO light traps and Pyrethrum Spray Catch (PSC). ANOVA and Spearman’s rho correlation analysis were used to analyze the link between mosquito abundance, seasonal variations, temperature and relative humidity. A total of 1,570 female Anopheles mosquitoes, representing 4 species were collected. Seasonally, the collections made reflected a sigmoid curve with the peak being the late rainy season (42.42%), early rainy season (42.29%) and dry season (15.29%). There was a significant difference (P <0.05) between the seasons and the number of anophelines collected. Collection using the light traps showed that more collections were made indoors (55.65%) than outdoors (44.35%) though not significantly different (P >0.05). The hourly distribution for indoor biting mosquitoes peaked at 2 am-3 am and outdoor 3 am-4 am. Using the PSC collection technique, 3 groups of Anopheles species were collected. Indoor resting density of 1 Anopheles mosquito/room/night and Man-biting rate of 5.5 Anopheles mosquito / man / night was observed. The findings in the study therefore gives a direction to take in the control of malaria vectors in Ahani Achi, Oji River of Enugu, knowing the seasonal variation of the malaria vectors, their biting behaviour, climatic exposure and the likely human behaviour that encourages the biting tendency of the mosquito.

Keywords
Malaria; Anopheles gambiae; Anopheles funestus; Temperature; Humidity
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. Ebuka Kingsley Ezihe
. Friday Maduka Chikezie
. Chukwudi Micheal Egbuche
. Edith N. Nwankwo
. Angus Ejidikeme Onyido
. Dennis Aribodor
. Musa Lazarus Samdi
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