Research Report

Comparative Efficiency of Four Repellents against Anopheles gambiae s.s.  

Karama Ibrahim Ogillo1 , Lucille Lyaruu2 , Ester Lyatuu2 , Aneth Mahande3 , Eliningaya J. Kweka2, 4, 5
1 Department of Biological science, University of Eastern Africa Baraton, P.O. Box 2500-30100, Eldoret, Kenya
2 Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Division of Livestock and Human Diseases Vector Control, Mosquito Section, P.O. Box 3024, Arusha, Tanzania
3 Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Mabogini field station, Moshi, Tanzania
4 Department of Medical Parasitology and Entomology, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Mwanza, Tanzania
5 Pan African Mosquito Control Association (PAMCA), Tanzania (
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2016, Vol. 6, No. 25   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2016.06.0025
Received: 08 Sep., 2016    Accepted: 20 Oct., 2016    Published: 09 Nov., 2016
© 2016 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Ogillo I.K., Lyaruu L., Lyatuu E., Mahande A., and Kweka E.J., 2016, Comparative efficiency of four repellents against Anopheles gambiae s.s., Journal of Mosquito Research, 6(25): 1-6 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2016.06.0025)


Personal protection tools are of paramount importance in vector borne disease control. The use of repellents is an additional tool for use when out of bed. Four repellents N, N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), Maskitta, lemon grass and Menthol propylene glycol carbonate (MR08) were examined in this experiment for their protective efficiency against malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae senso stricta. The four repellents DEET, Maskitta, Citronella and MR08 were formulated on volume based ratio against glycerin oil. The repellent dosages were evaluated against Anopheles gambiae in a 30×30×30 cm cage. Treated arm of a volunteer was exposed in the cage for a period of one hour for each dosage. Likewise for negative control. Experiments were conducted in a room with temperature and humidity of 27±2 degree Celsius and 75±2% respectively. Each repellent experiment had six replicates. In this study the results showed that, the protective efficiency was highest in Maskitta, followed by DEET, MR08 and lemon grass was least protective in all dosages. DEET was the golden standard positive control and glycerin was negative control in these experiments. Maskitta reached a protection efficiency of 100% similar to DEET while MRO8 were above 80% in all concentrations. From the results of these experiments, the use of repellents for personal protective gear has a significant role in reducing human-vector contact. Maskitta which is a newly formulated repellent showed a protection efficiency of 100%, this is evidence that more scientific research should be carried out in order to have more quality effective products for personal protection against mosquitoes.

Malaria; Anopheles gambiae s.s.; Repellents; Probing
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