hacker tools
xnxxfix.com
şehirler arası nakliyat istanbul şehirler arası nakliyat şehirler arası nakliyat fiyatları

hack forum hack forum alfa shell recovery shell shell recovery shell Mirror Zone smm bayi smm ana bayi wso shell hacklink hacklink paketleri hacklink nedir hacklink panel

cami halısı cami halıları cami halısı cami halıları cami halısı cami halıları Cami Halısı Cami Halıları Cami Halısı Turkuaz Cami Halısı Cami Süpürgesi

Evden Eve Nakliyat istanbul Evden Eve Nakliyat istanbul Evden Eve Nakliyat Evden Eve Nakliyat mng Evden Eve Nakliyat Evden Eve Nakliyat Evden Eve Nakliyat istanbul Evden Eve Nakliyat Evden Eve Nakliyat istanbul Nakliyat evden eve nakliyat istanbul evden eve nakliyat istanbul ofis taşıma ofis taşımacılık ofis taşımacılığı istanbul ofis taşımacılığı taşıma yurtiçi evden eve nakliyat evden eve nakliyat yurtiçi evden eve nakliyat yurtiçi nakliyat içel Evden Eve Nakliyat Mersin Evden Eve Nakliyat

çiğköfte çiğköfte bayiliği çiğköfte bayilik promosyon promosyon ürünleri promosyon şapka prefabrik prefabrik evler
Residual Effectiveness of Crude Ethanol Extracts of Mature Green Fruits of Endod Phytolacca dodecandra (L' Herit) against An. gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae | Yugi | Journal of Mosquito Research

Research Article

Residual Effectiveness of Crude Ethanol Extracts of Mature Green Fruits of Endod Phytolacca dodecandra (L' Herit) against An. gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae  

Jared Owiti Yugi , Dolphine Carolyne Anyango , Hellen Adhiambo Ogot
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Kabianga, P. O. Box 2030-20200, Kericho, Kenya
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 1   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2017.07.0001
Received: 02 Jan., 2017    Accepted: 24 Jan., 2017    Published: 06 Feb., 2017
© 2017 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Yugi J.O., Anyango D.C., and Ogot H.A., 2017, Residual effectiveness of crude ethanol extracts of mature green fruits of Endod Phytolaccadodecandra (L’ Herit) against An. gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, Journal of Mosquito Research, 7(1): 1-8 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2017.07.0001)

Abstract

Mosquitoes are vectors of aborvirals and malaria and are a threat to public health. We evaluated residual effectiveness of crude ethanol extracts of Endod Phytolacca dodecandra (L’ Herit) leaves and mature green fruits in water against Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae to determine duration of protection of the extract against An. gambiae mosquitoes. Stock’s solution of 80 mg/100 mls of crude ethanol extract of mature green fruits and leaves of Endod were prepared using rain harvested water and left to stand. Six such stocks’ solutions were prepared on six separate days. Each of the stock’s solutions was serially diluted to 40, 20, 10, 5 and 2.5 mg/100 ml and poured in five sets of separate plastic containers. Each container measuring 6 cm top × 5.7 cm bottom × 3.5 cm height contained a solution of a particular concentration. Twenty L3s were exposed per container. Extracts of Neem leaves and deltamethrin were used as positive and rain water alone as negative control. WHO threshold of>80% mortality was used to assess residual effectiveness. Mortality was determined after 24 hours. Resudual effectiveness was dose dependent. As low as 10 mg/100 mls solutions of freshly to two day old preparations of crude ethanol extract of mature green fruits and leaves of Endod killed more than 80% larvae. The solutions remained effective for three day only. Effectiveness reduced rapidly after day four. Crude ethanol extracts of Endod mature green fruits and leaves have a residual period of three days in water against An. gambiae larvae.

Keywords
An. gambiae; Endod; Ethanol; Neem; Deltamethrin; Residual effect
[Full-Text PDF] [Full-Flipping PDF] [Full-Text HTML]
Journal of Mosquito Research
• Volume 7
View Options
. PDF(583KB)
. FPDF
. HTML
. Online fPDF
Associated material
. Readers' comments
Other articles by authors
pornliz suckporn porndick pornstereo . Jared Owiti Yugi
. Dolphine Carolyne Anyango
. Hellen Adhiambo Ogot
Related articles
. An. gambiae
. Endod
. Ethanol
. Neem
. Deltamethrin
. Residual effect
Tools
. Email to a friend
. Post a comment