Research Article

The Larvicidal and Repellent Effect of Bush Mint Plant (Hyptis suaveolens) and Hairy Sicklepod (Senna hirsuta) Extracts against the Larvae and Adult of Culex quinquefasciatus  

Ebuka Kingsley Ezihe1 , Chukwudi Micheal Egbuche2 , Edith N. Nwankwo2 , Angus Ejidikeme Onyido2 , InyaAgha Mishael Uzochukwu3 , Anumba Joseph U.1 , Chukwuzoba Obinna Anthony4 , Onyali Ikechukwu O.2
1 National Arbovirus and Vectors Research centre, Nigeria
2 Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
3 International Bio-Research Institute, Enugu, Nigeria
4 Society for Family Health, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 8   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2017.07.0008
Received: 11 Apr., 2017    Accepted: 01 Jun., 2017    Published: 16 Jun., 2017
© 2017 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Ebuka K.E., Chukwudi M.E., Nwankwo E.N., Angus E.O., Inya-Agha M.U., Anumba J.U., Chukwuzoba O.A., and Onyali I.O., 2017, The larvicidal and repellent effect of bush mint plant (Hyptis suaveolens) and hairy sicklepod (Senna hirsuta) extracts against the larvae and adult of Culex quinquefasciatus, Journal of Mosquito Research, 7(8): 59-69 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2017.07.0008)

Abstract

The efficacy of hexane leaf extracts of Hyptissuaveolens and Senna hirsuta as a larvicide and repellent against the 4th instar larvae and adult of Culexquinquefasciatus was investigated. Extraction was done using Soxhlet apparatus. Twenty fourth instar larvae of Culexquinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% and control) and observed over 3 hours for mortality. Repellency against the adult mosquito was investigated on five human volunteers who did not use any lotion, soap or perfume on the arm. The experiment was carried out during the day in a dark shade. Percentage repellence was recorded every 10minutes for a period of 1 hour. Lethal concentration 50% (LC50) which is the concentration required to kill half the members of the tested population after 3 hours of exposure was used to assess the larval mortality. Result indicated the combined extract with LC50 6% gave a higher mortality than the individual extract of Hyptis suaveolens (LC50 6.4%) and Senna hirsuta (LC50 7.5%). Similarly, repellence was highest in the combined extract with 75% repellency than in the extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (70%) and Senna hirsuta (50%). The result observed in the study was analyzed using Analysis of Variance. There was a significant difference from the use of individual extracts (P< 0.05). From the result of the study, it was deduced that the efficacy of the treatments increased with an increasing exposure time and concentration. The findings of the study revealed the efficacy of hexane leaf extracts of Hyptis suaveolens and Senna hirsuta as good larvicide and repellent against Culex quinquefasciatus especially in the synergistic state.

Keywords
Culex quinquefasciatus; Hyptis suaveolens; Senna hirsute; Larvicidal; Repellency
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