Research Article

Status and Genes Involved in Insecticide Resistance in Anopheles gambiae Sibling Species in Lomé, (Togo), West Africa  

Kouassivi Accrobessy1 , Marina Lidwine Olé2 , Monique A. Dorkenoo3 , Razaki Adiho Ossè2,4 , Bruno Agnishola Akinro2 , Aboubacar Sidick2 , Martin C. Akogbeto2,5 , Isabelle Glitho6
1 Ecole Supérieure des Techniques Biologiques et Alimentaires (ESTBA), Université de Lomé, 01 BP 1515 Lomé 01, Togo
2 Centre de Recherches Entomologiques de Cotonou (CREC), 06 BP 2604, Cotonou, Bénin
3 Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Lomé, 01 BP 1515 Lomé 01, Togo
4 Ecole de Gestion et d'Exploitation des Systèmes d'Elevage (EGESE), Université d'Agriculture de Kétou (UAK), Bénin
5 Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin
6 Laboratoire d’Entomologie Appliquée (LEA), Faculté des Sciences (FDS), Université de Lomé, 01 BP 1515 Lomé 01, Togo
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 11   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2017.07.0011
Received: 02 Jun., 2017    Accepted: 05 Jul., 2017    Published: 28 Jul., 2017
© 2017 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Accrobessy K., Olé L.M., Dorkenoo A.M., Ossè R., Akinro B., Sidick A., Akogbeto M.C., and Glitho A., 2017, Status and genes involved in insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae sibling species in Lomé, (Togo), Journal of Mosquito Research, 7(11): 84-95 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2017.07.0011)


Malaria vector control relies on mosquito susceptibility to insecticides. Nowadays, the phenomenon of mosquitoes’ resistance to insecticides is growing wider and wider, including all chemical families of insecticides. In order to update data on the insecticides susceptibility, the species’ distribution and genes involved in insecticide resistance in Anopheles in the capital of Togo, we tested local strains of An. gambiae s.l. from three study sites in Lomé, with five insecticides namely DDT, Permethrin, Deltamethrin, Bendiocarb, and Fenitrothion. The tests had been performed with the WHO kits from 2013 to 2015. The results of the tests showed mortality rates of 16.0% with 4% DDT, 28.0% with 0.75% Permethrin, 33.0% with 0.05% Deltamethin, 44.0% with 0.1% Bendiocarb and 98.8% with 1% Fenitrothion. The major malaria vectors were shown, across all sites, to be resistant to all of the classes of insecticides used in the experiments except Fenitrothion. PCR analyses for the species’ identification showed, proportions of 81% of An. gambiae s.s. and 19% of An. coluzzii in the city. For the Kdr gene, PCR analyses showed proportions of 57.94% RR, 33.33% RS and 8.73% of SS, revealing a high prevalence of kdr resistance in the Anopheles population in Lomé. However, analyses showed mosquitos without Ace1R gene. The multiple resistance to various insecticides is a major concern for the control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases in Lomé, as well as in Togo.

Resistance; Insecticides; Anopheles gambiae sibling species; Kdr and Ace1R genes distribution; Lomé
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. Kouassivi Accrobessy
. Marina Lidwine Olé
. Monique A. Dorkenoo
. Razaki Adiho Ossè
. Bruno Agnishola Akinro
. Aboubacar Sidick
. Martin C. Akogbeto
. Isabelle Glitho
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