Research Article

Diversification of the Tea Products ---- Global Scenario  

N. Ghosh Hajra1 , C. Won-Mo Yang2
1. Organic Tea and Agri-Horticultural Consulting, Santiban, Parashmoni A/401, 7 - Umakanta Sen Lane, Kolkata – 700030, India
2. Faculty of Horticulture, Sunchon National University, Sunchon City, Jeonnam 540742, Korea
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Tea Science Research, 2015, Vol. 5, No. 3   doi: 10.5376/jtsr.2015.05.0003
Received: 19 Jan., 2015    Accepted: 06 Mar., 2015    Published: 31 Mar., 2015
© 2015 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Ghosh Hajra and Yang, 2015, Diversification of the Tea Products ---- Global Scenario, Journal of Tea Science Research, Vol.5, No.3, 1-10 (doi: 10.5376/jtsr.2015.05.0003)

Abstract

Tea is most consumed drink in the world after water. Tea industry makes a vital contribution to the economy of the producing countries. Tea is a rich source of polyphenols and now-a-days interest in the possible health benefits of polyphenols, particularly flavonoids, has increased owing to their antioxidant and free-radical scavenging abilities. Presently, the world market price of tea has stagnated with supplies being stable and this situation emphasizes the need for exploring alternative means of increasing profits from tea cultivation. Product diversification of tea through value addition seems to be an important approach to mitigate the impacts of low market price and high production costs. In the present article diversified tea products developed in different tea producing countries have been described.

Keywords
Antioxidant; Catechin; Polyphenol; Product Diversification; Tea

Introduction
Tea is one of the most popular, cheapest and second most consumed beverages in the world. Global tea production has exceeded 4 million tonnes and the trend is continuously increasing with an annual growth rate of 1.9% for black tea and 3.8% for green tea and is projected to reach a production of 3.14 million tonnes of black tea and 1.57 million tonnes of green tea by 2017 (Refer: Report of the eighteen session of the inter intergovernmental group on tea, Hangzhou, China, 14–16 May 2008). Tea is considered to have wide beverage market and the tea industry makes a vital contribution to the economy of the producing countries. But the future of worldwide tea production is in a very unpleasant situation due to low world prices while cost of production are increasing due to high prices of farm inputs, surge in the labour wages and overhead expenditure. Further, tea prices are also declining due to excess supply of poor quality of teas into the world market thereby reducing profit margins further. Further, the brew is also losing out in the competition with other beverages. The situation emphasizes the need for exploring alternative means of increasing profits from tea cultivation. 

Tea contains a range of soluble substances such as catechins, caffeine, theanine, chlorophyll, organic acids, and vitamins (Graham, 1992; Balentine et al., 1998). Catechin account for a large amount (30% of its dry weight) compared to other soluble substances. Tea polyphenols, particularly catechins which are antioxidants and their antioxidative properties were found to be stronger than those of vitamins C, vitamin E, and β-carotene (Graham, 1992). The major green tea polyphenols are: (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin. EGCG is the major catechin in tea accounting for more than 10% on a dry weight basis of tea. Black tea additionally contains complex oligomeric and polymeric polyphenols, theaflavins (TF) and thearubigins (TR), which are formed during processing as products of polyphenol oxidase-mediated catechin oxidation. Of all the catechins in tea, EGCG is the main subject of scientific study with regard to its potential health effects (Ghosh Hajra, 2006). However, the chemical composition of tea varies with climate, season, variety, cultivation practices, and the age of the leaves (Graham, 1992). 

During the course of the last three decades, the health effects of tea and its catechins have been documented in numerous scientific studies and the scientific basis of these effects has been elaborated (Hara, 2001; Kuroda and Hara, 2004). Research studies shows evidence that catechins in tea serve as potential in lowering the risk of several chronic diseases (Ghosh Hajra, 2006). Now-a-days interest in the possible health benefits of catechins has increased owing to their antioxidant and free-radical scavenging abilities observed in vitro. However, to achieve health benefits only drinking tea may not provide a sufficient level of catechins. Therefore, the use of catechins in foods is an alternative way to supplement catechin consumption (Vuong et al., 2011). Furthermore, catechins help in preventing lipid oxidation (Haak et al., 2009) and also improve flavour and colour of foods; hence, addition of catechins can also prolong the shelf life of foods (Vuong et al., 2011). But catechins possess a very astringent and bitter taste (Balentine et al., 1998). However, production processes for preparing catechin extracts to outline the challenges that may be encountered when using tea extracts in foods has been described by Vuong et al. (2011). 

Initially, investigations to develop industrial applications viz. tea-based nutraceuticals, functional drinks and tea-based health-, beauty-and body-care formulas have been started in the research laboratories and research centres of different companies of Japan and in China. Tea catechin products that have practical and industrial applications have gained wide popularity in Japan, China, South Korea and some other countries. In the present article diversified tea products developed in different tea producing countries have been described.

1 Japan
Several products with high amount of tea catechins are produced in Japan (Figure 1). They include Polyphenon (Mitsui Norin Co., Tokyo, Japan), Sunphenon (Taiyo Kagaku Co., Yokkaichi, Japan), Thea-Flan (Ito-en Co., Tokyo, Japan) and others. As the health effects of tea catechin are scientifically established, products containing the chemicals have begun to appear on the market. These are described below.


Figure 1 Catechin impregnated commercial products in Japan

1.1 Catechin Capsules
Trend towards convenience, a variety of supplements, capsules or powders containing tea catechins are marketed commercially in Japan (Figure 1). It offers all-round benefits of health maintenance and prevention of illness. Various similar tea catechin capsules are sold in the U.S. health care market. In addition, to fortify the beneficial effects of tea catechins, other desirable components like vitamin A, C, E, and/or extracts of several plants are often included in the catechin tablets. Sometimes it is combined with oligosaccharides which help to maintain the intestinal flora in good condition. Such tablets are also available in world market (Miyazawa and Nakagawa, 2005).

1.2 Green Tea Tablet
Some people don't like the bitter taste of green tea but want the benefits of green tea. Tablets are becoming a very popular way to take in the health benefits of green tea without drinking it. Some don't react well to caffeine of green tea since they get the jitters, heart palpitations, can't sleep etc. Tablets made with decaffeinated green tea extract are available which are manufactured commercially in Japan, China and other countries.

1.3 Catechin 100
It contains 100 mg catechins/capsule. This is taken orally in preventing viral, bacterial and other infections. It prevents cold. This is sold in Japan and US health care market.

1.4 Catechin 100 Plus Oligo
Intake of this tablet inhibits the growth of putrefactive bacteria and increase of Bifidobacteria or Lactobacillus. One tablet contains 50 mg of tea catechins and 40 mg of galacto-oligosaccharide. It improves the bowel modulating action (Hara, 2001).

1.5 Catechin 50
It has been introduced in Japan for long-term care facilities since it is known to reduce unpleasant faecal odours. 

1.6 Catechin ACE
The capsule contains 50 mg of tea catechins, 10 mg Gingko biloba extract, 200 International Unit of vitamin A, 20 mg and 10 mg of vitamin C and E respectively. This is being used in Japan for enhancing antioxidativity and for those who are under oxidative stress and prune to vascular disorder (Hara, 2001).

1.7 Catechin Car-Air-Filter and Air Cleaning System
It helps to reduce odorous volatiles inside the car. This is used widely in vehicles manufactured by Suzuki Motor Corporation, Japan. Further, Matsushita Electric (Panasonic) use this compound in air conditioning filters for freshens up room air quality and prevents the spread of bacteria and viruses inside the room. 

1.8 Antiflu Mask
A Catechin air filter has been fitted in a facial mask which is used mainly for protecting influenza virus and also has a preventive effect against hay-fever in Japan.

1.9 Catechin Miramat
This is a multipurpose sheet which can absorb formaldehyde and also having antibacterial and deodorizing properties.

1.10 Catechin Cosmetics
The antioxidative potency and UV protecting functions of tea catechins are widely utilized in manufacturing cosmetics in Japan and South Korea. Green tea polyphenols becomes one of the favourite ingredients for cosmetic preparations. Kumar et al. (2012) reviewed the availability of human data on their skin effects and opined that the effects may be small but significant and do meaningfully improve skin feel and appearance with continued use. Tea catechins have protective effects against UV damage and prevent pigment colouration (Kuroda and Hara, 2004). Green tea contains various natural ingredients that help retain healthy and radiant skin. The ranges of products, which contain either highly purified catechins or green tea as an extract/powdered form, are available in the market. Hair care products include shampoos and conditioners, ultraviolet screens and colour protectants. Cosmetics, which contain green tea, include soap, moisturizer's perfumes, sunscreens and foundations. The European and Asian market is emerging rapidly as a consumer of nutraceuticals and cosmetics with green tea used as part of ingredient list. Green tea skin care aroma moisturizing face mask is also available in the markets.

1.11 Catechin Jel
The oral cavity contains more than hundreds of cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria and their presence may result in, not only oral infection, but also systemic diseases, such as infective endocarditis and aspiration pneumonia. Tea extracts have been used as an additive to the toothpaste or gum for the purpose of preventing dental caries. The application of catechin gel inhibited the growth of the Actinomyces, periodontopathic bacteria and Candida strains tested (Tamura and Ochiai, 2012). Further, while reviewing the research on the advantage and benefits of catechin, they highlighted the possible use of catechin gel against oral diseases, such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and candidiasis (Tamura and Ochiai, 2012). Tea polyphenols are anticarious in three ways: (1) they inhibit the plaque forming enzyme, (2) they suppress the growth of Streptococcus mutants and (3) they solidify the enamel (Hara, 2001). EGCG also inhibits the growth and the adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, bacteria responsible for periodontal disease (Sakanaka et al., 1996; Kakuda et al., 1994).

1.12 Catechin pet foods
Tea catechins were mixed in pet foods to promote good health, and to reduce faecal odour and caries in cats and other pets. Catechin pet foods are popular in Japan.

1.13 Kitchen Spray
Tea catechins are dissolved in ethanol/water and added to a hand spray. Tea catechins could absorb amines which are responsible for characteristics fishy smells in kitchen (Kuroda and Hara, 2004). After cooking fish, a spray of this liquid removes the fishy smell.

1.14 Catechin Eggs
In several clinical studies with human, it was reported that the tea catechin lower cholesterol in the blood, inhibit oxidation and protect against heart disease. (Ghosh Hajra, 2006) This beneficial function has been applied by fixing feed with tea catechins when used for laying chicken produce eggs with uniquely favourable characteristics as compared with the non-catechin feed used for laying chicken. It has been observed lower content of total lipid; cholesterol and peroxide when catechin feed mixed in the feed of laying chickens produce eggs (Hara, 2001)). Further, adding polyphenon (a product of Mitsui Norin Co., Ltd., Japan that contains catechins and derivatives) to the hen feed reduce the fat and peroxide contents of the eggs and the eggs are commercially marketed as ‘catechin eggs’ in Japan (Tanaka, 2013). 
 
1.15 Catechin Candy
Keeping the effectiveness against anti-flu and prevention of tooth decay in mind, candies containing catechins has commercially entered in the market. However, the regulations do not permit its efficacy.
 
1.16 Catechin Chewing Gum
Generally, the extract of dried green tea powder used to prepare various formulations of green tea chewing gum. A combination of sugar, aspartame and maltitol covered the bitter taste of the green tea. Cinnamon, peppermint tastes of chewing gums are available (Aslani et al., 2014).

1.17 Catechin Tea Bar
It is a low fat and a great source of fibre, natural cellulose, vitamin B, zinc, selenium, chromium, minerals and essential amino acids. This bar contains green tea catechin and brewer’s yeast. The other ingredients are sprouted brown rice, flax seed, buckwheat, oat, rye, sesame seeds, konnyaku fructose and bamboo salt. Green tea bar is familiar in Japan.

1.18 Bottle Catechin Drinks
This prepared mainly from the extracts from useful herbs are mixed with tea catechins and β-carotene. In combination with vitamins, tea catechin found to have a strong scavenging action on active oxygen (Kuroda and Hara, 2004). Bottle tea drinks are also commercially produced by using oolong, black, green tea leaves and sometimes mixing with several teas. These drinks are very common among Japanese. Chen et al. (2001) examined the stability of GTC (Green Tea Catechin: Instant Green Tea) as a mixture under various processing conditions and observed when it was added into commercially available soft drinks or sucrose solutions containing citric acid and ascorbic acid, GTC exhibited varying stability irrespective of low pH value. This suggested that other ingredients used in production of tea drinks might interact with GTC and affect its stability. When canned and bottled tea drinks are produced, stored, and transported, the degradation of GTC must be taken into consideration (Chen et al., 2001). 

1.19 Catechin Beverage
This is healthy thirst-quenching beverage high in antioxidants while unsweetened and calorie-free made with purified water fortified with catechins, vitamin C and other ingredients. This beverage has good market demand in Japan, Taiwan and US.

1.20 Green Tea Cola (Cricket cola)
This is available in the global market. The ingredients used are carbonated water, sugar, invert sugar, brewed green tea concentrate, contains 0.5% or less of the following: natural flavors, kola nut extract, vanilla extract, citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, caramel colour, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate (to preserve freshness).

1.21 Matcha Powder
Matcha refers to finely milled or fine powder green tea and very popular in Japan. It is rich in polyphenols, vitamins, minerals, fibers, chlorophyll and L-theanine. Matcha Powder can be used as a new refreshing flavour for beverages, dairy products, cooking and confections.

1.22 Green tea Ice Cream
Green tea ice cream or Matcha Aisu (Ice), as it’s commonly referred to in Japan, is widely available in Japan and East and West Asia too. This is not only because of its inherent health benefits, but also because it is simply a great dessert with a traditional Japanese taste.
 
2 China
In order to further utilize low-grade tea and tea by-products, increasing the economic and social benefits of tea industry, China has begun to develop so-called deep-processing technologies for tea since 1979 (Lin, 2004). Various products have been developed (Figure 2) which are describing bellow.


Figure 2 Diversified commercial products of tea in China 

2.1 Tea Polyphenols
Light yellow powder with high catechins and it could be used in foods additives with functions of antioxidation, antibacterial and removing free radicals. It is popular in China. Demand for the tea polyphenols has been gaining due to its super antioxidant property and easy availability of its products in the market at reasonable rates. Green tea polyphenols dominated the overall market due to its high extractable polyphenol content over other tea polyphenols. Large amount of green tea polyphenols from Japan and China are exported to Europe and North America. Grand View Research of San Francisco, USA reported that the global market for tea polyphenols was USD 209.3 million in 2012 and is expected to reach USD 367.7 million by 2020, growing at a CAGR of 7.4% from 2013 to 2020. In terms of volumes, market demand pegged at about 9,200 tons by 2020. (Refer: http://www.Grandviewre-search.com Tea Polyphenols Market Analysis by Product and Segment Forecasts to 2020). 

2.2 Theanine
It is a unique amino acid which enhances the taste of tea infusion and it has many favourable physiological effects on human. Theanine could be used in food and beverage industries as a new type of functional food ingredient. The products of theanine standardized as > 20% or > 40% have in the list of industrial production; pure theanine can be produced at pilot plant scale.
 
2.3 Tea Polysaccharide
It is a kind of bioactive extract from green tea with higher molecular weight (i.e. 40,000 to 100,000) which reduces blood sugars and blood lipid concentration, prevents blood agglutination and blood embolus. Polysaccharides extracted from the lower grade green tea might be employed as ingredients in healthy and functional food to alleviate the oxidative stress (Chen et al., 2013).

2.4 Micro Tea Powder (MTP)
It is made from fresh green, oolong, black tea leaves. It contains no chemical additives. Through quick crushing process, the colour and characteristics of the finished product (200~300 mesh) is preserved. The product can directly use in beverage as well as natural ingredients in food (ice-cream, chewing gum, jam, jelly, biscuit etc.), tooth paste and cosmetics. 

2.5 Tea Saponin
It is a glycoside compound extracted from tea seeds. Liquid and powder forms of saponin are available in the market. It is an excellent non-ionic active natural surfactants and easily soluble in water. After formulation, it can be widely used in pesticide, textile, daily chemical and architectural fields and so on as natural surfactants. Tea saponin products developed in China as well as Japan and are attracting attention for their gentle cleansing action along with their natural pureness. It is widely used in medicine industry. In agriculture, saponin is used to increase solubility and effect of pesticides, dispelling insects and promoting crop growth, can kill cutworm and nematodes. In aquaculture, it is used for cleaning of harmful fishes before prawn breeding, prevent prawn black gill disease and accelerate prawn exuviations, and growth. In architectural field, it is used for foam stabilizer and foam concentrate manufacture, promoting suspension of aluminium powder and improving cellular structure of concrete (Refer: http://www.chinateasaponin.com/).

2.6 Tea Seed Oil
This product has been developed in China and presently not exported to any other country. Tea seed oil is an edible, pale amber-green fixed oil with a sweet, herbal aroma and considered to be particularly healthy for cooking because of its high boiling point and its high content of unsaturated fatty acids (Dufrêne, 2014). Tea seed oil is known as a by-product in Iran and it was modified by enzymatic interesterification to produce a structured lipid that would be suitable for use as a cocoa butter replacer in the dark chocolate and related confectionary applications and industries (Sahari et al., 2013).

There are textiles made out of tea-leaf fibre, tea dyes and tea-based air purifiers which are also available in the Chinese market only. These type of items are increasing, research investigations on the quality of the products and possibilities for more industrial applications are in progress.

3 Korea
Beloved by tea connoisseurs, but not well known by mainstream tea drinkers, Korea is actively increasing its efforts to be recognised globally as an important player in the tea industry. Almost half of all the tea areas in Korea produce organic tea. Green tea is major type of tea in Korea. It is produced in the Boseong, Solaksan and Hadong regions and the people in the Boseong area in particular have been incorporated tea into everything. They make beauty products with green tea such as nok cha (green tea) soap, tea oil, tea latte, sun cream, and supplements among other things which are available at the sales counter of supermarkets and the shelves the of tea plantations (Figure 3). Green tea products like pepper paste, bean paste, noodle, grain syrup, oil-and-honey pastry, rice cake slices, fermented soybean paste products are also developed.


Figure 3 Diversified commercial green tea products in Korea
 
4 India
4.1 Tea Tablet
The tablet is a compressed form of black tea extract with additives, developed by Tea Research Association (TRA), Assam, India. It can be chewed or sipped through hot water preparation with same refreshing effect like a steaming cup of tea. The tablet weighing 300 mg has dissolution time less than minutes.
 
4.2 Tea Cola
A soft drink with health benefit effect made from black tea extracts developed by TRA, India fortified with variety of fruit as well as spice flavours, sugar and edible organic acids. Researchers say apart from the high caffeine content, which acts as a stimulant, the drink also has several health benefits. It also contains thiamine (vitamin B1). Since they are based on leaf extracts, these products are also expected to improve the market value of lower-grade tea leaves. TRA is working on other value added variants viz. powdered tea in many flavours, development of natural colours from tea wastes for use in confectionneries and biscuits that contain the life-enhancing qualities of tea.

4.3 Tea Toffee
Tea toffee and tea tablets can be conveniently carried due to smaller size, and can be taken anywhere, anytime whenever one feels like taking a cup of tea (Baruah et al., 2007). It gives the full taste and characteristics of tea without really having to use conventional forms of it to make the brew.

4.4 Tea Ice cream
Antioxidant property of tea was utilized for making value added ice cream. Green, black and black soluble teas was used for making ice cream. Baruah et al. (2012) described the flow chart of tea ice cream which is as follows. The quality evaluation of tea ice cream by different consumers using hedonic rating scale found that ice cream prepared from black tea extract was much better than black soluble and green tea. Earlier number of attempts were made for the extraction and incorporation of tea attributes such as colour, flavour, taste and antioxidant properties of tea in different food items like tea biscuit, tea toffee etc. (Baruah et al., 2007 and 2008 ). As preparation of these items required high temperature regime, there was possibility of loss of value through thermal degradation. Low temperature incorporation would retain the values much better and also found that the incorporation of tea colour, flavour and taste made the tea ice cream highly acceptable (Baruah et al., 2012).

4.5 Tea Concentrate
The Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT) Himachal Pradesh, India has come up with a tea concentrate that retains the flavour and medicinal value of tea, can be used to make a variety of food items. Tea concentrates are prepared from black and green Kangra teas which have a self-life of six months under room temperature (25℃) in air tight glass or pet bottles and remain safe for use for more than a year under controlled temperature (4℃) in sealed bottles (Figure 4). Tea concentrates are further converted into RTD teas with sugar/ sweeteners, purified water and carbonation.


Figure 4 Diversified products of tea in India

Flow chart of the preparation of tea ice cream


4.6 Tea Wine
It is developed by IHBT (Figure 4) which is made as per the conventional procedure involving yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using secondary grade black tea dust fortified with specific proportion with sugar. It is matured over a period of one year. The antioxidant properties are retained in the wine which contains 12-15% alcohol. Two types of tea wines, ‘pure tea wine’ and ‘Palam Belle’ a mild and sweet fruit tea wine have been developed (Anonymous, 2014). 

TRA, Assam has also developed tea wine which would be soon in the market. The uniqueness of the product is that unlike the Japanese tea-based wine, this is not mingle red wine with the beverage. The Japanese tea based wine producers mix the red wine in specific proportion to make the drink. But this is based on pure tea with some added flavours to exude the exotic aromas of Darjeeling and Assam teas.
 
4.7 Apple Tea
This tea in tetra packs has launched by Himachal Pradesh Fruit Processing and Marketing Corporation (HPMC), India. The tea concentrate has been developed by the Central Agriculture Institute, Palampur. It has been processed with apple concentrate from the HPMC. It is made without sugar, preservatives that are available in 200 ml tetra packs. The shelf life is around 10 months. It is a mixture of premium Kangra tea and famous apple of Simla, Kullu and Kinaur area of Himachal Pradesh, India.
 
4.8 Tea-based Herbal Mouth Freshener
This is based on tea and Himalayan flora with known anti-dental caries properties. The antioxidant activity is due to catechins, 4-terpineol; 1, 8-cineole, and linalool, 2-undecanone (Anonymous, 2014). The freshener has a shelf-life of more than 6 months at ambient temperature.

4.9 Tea Polyphenols and Theaflavins
These are extracted from underutilized parts viz. flowers, mature shoots etc. of the tea plant using green solvents, concentrated, purified and spray dried. These have wide applications as nutraceuticals, food preservatives and food colorants. Tea polyphenols contain 60-70% catechins.

4.10 Organic Tulsi Green Tea
It is a unique combination of certified organic green tea and tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum, also known as Ocimum sanctum). Tulsi or holy basil is an aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae which is native to the Indian Subcontinent and widespread as a cultivated plant throughout the Southeast Asian tropics. Both tulsi and green tea are rich in antioxidant and helps in refreshing and energizing the body and mind (Refer: http://www.organicindia.co.in/organic-india-tulsi-green -tea. php).

4.11 Organic Tulsi Lemon Ginger Green Tea
Lemony flavors mixed with tasty tulsi leaves and a touch of natural sweetness, with the added benefits of green tea and ginger. The ingredients of the product are: green tea, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), vana tulsi (Ocimum gratissimum), krishna tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), ginger (Zingiber officinale), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) and also contains added flavour (lemon tart flavour).

4.12 Ginger Tea with Sugar
For warming up during cold, drinking of black tea with pure ginger, milk and sugar is very common in India. No added flavour. It tastes not too sweet with a touch of ginger taste. Good for reducing dizziness. Ginger is herb that is used as a spice and also for its therapeutic qualities.

4.13 Hygienically Packed Ice Tea
Hygienically packed ice tea is filled with many chemicals that are beneficial to the body and contains antioxidants, vitamins C, E as well as amino acids. This Tea is offered in properly packed manner.

4.14 Tea Sticks with Ginger and Cardamom Extracts
Tea sticks are 2.5 grams of the finest leaf teas encased in pure aluminium foil. Stick tea creates great conversation and excitement and curiosity when served. The tea is the finest one: full leaf, full bodied, mountain-grown, and aromatic; 100% pure, no artificial ingredients. This tea is a blend of ginger taste and refreshing aroma of Malabar cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) offer health benefits with its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. 

4.15 Hygienically Packed Masala Black Tea
Hygienically packed masala tea has good aroma and taste. The Tea consists of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), cardamom and other spices. The Tea is offered in proper packing. This masala tea is offered in fresh and pure manner.

4.16 Soya Drink with Green Tea Extract
It is a unique health and wellness supplement that provides the combined health benefits of soy protein and green tea. Soy protein is a high quality protein comparable to meat, milk and eggs. The unique synergy of soy protein and green tea offers great health and wellness benefits beyond basic nutrition.

4.17 Bergamot Orange Blend Black Tea
Earl Grey tea is a tea blend with a distinctive citrus flavour and aroma derived from the addition of oil extracted from the rind of the bergamot orange, a fragrant citrus fruit. Traditionally, the term "Earl Grey" has applied only to black teas that contain oil of bergamot.

5 Miscellaneous Uses of Tea Catechins
• Tea-dyed antibacterial clothing towel, socks, T-shirts, polo-shirts, undergarments, pillows etc. manufactured using tea-dyed cotton. The antibacterial action of tea catechins lasts for a considerably long time, even after many washes. Further, green tea powder is used for staining cloths or scarves in Japan and China is an ancient practice. Dyeing clothing with green tea is easy, economic and environmental friendly.

• Breathe Freshener available in tablet form and packaged for use after meals. This product is used for reduction of fish and garlic odours.

• Mollusk spray containing tea Catechin available in Japan, which exterminates slugs and snails.

• Catechins have a high potential for application to enhance the shelf life and health benefits of a wide range of fish and fish products (Vuong et al., 2011). Catechins, especially EGCG, have been found to effectively inhibit lipoxygenase, peroxidase, proteinases, and bacterial growth; therefore, they have a high potency for inhibiting lipid peroxidation and protecting the flavour of fish and fish products (Banerjee, 2006; Saito et al., 2002). However, the stability of the added catechins during the thermal processing and cooking of fish and fish products further studies need to be considered. 

• Different type of tea preparations like tea jelly, tea dish green salad, flour mixed with tea powder food items are very common in Taiwan. Chinese tea dumplings and catechin mixed moon cakes in Hong Kong are also very popular.

6 Conclusions
A wide range of tea products will continue to be developed through product and process development for value addition. With world market price of tea becoming stagnated, product diversification of tea through value addition seems to be an important approach to mitigate the impacts of low market price and high production costs. Despite, these additional outlets will enable tea growers to cater to the well-being of the consumers. However, there are many more challenges in further application and dissemination of these new products on domestic and international markets. But tea industry should confidently face these challenges.

Acknowledgement
The author (NGH) would like to sincerely thank Dr. Yukihiko Hara, Tea Solutions, Hara Office Inc., Tokyo, Japan whose critical reviews (Japan chapter) helped improve the manuscript.

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Journal of Tea Science Research
• Volume 5
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