Research Report

Evaluation of Different Varieties of Lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus L.)  

Kenghe R.N.1 , Nimkar P.M.2 , Shirkole S.S.3
1 Department of Agricultural Process Engineering, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, India
2 Department of Agricultural Process Engineering, Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, India
3 Department of Process and Food Engineering,National Institute of Technology, Rurkela, India
Author    Correspondence author
Legume Genomics and Genetics, 2016, Vol. 7, No. 8   doi: 10.5376/lgg.2016.07.0008
Received: 25 Apr., 2016    Accepted: 21 May, 2016    Published: 04 Jul., 2016
© 2016 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Kenghe R.N., Nimkar P.M., and Shirkole S.S., 2016, Evaluation of Different Varieties of Lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus L.), Legume Genomics and Genetics, 7(8): 1-7 (doi: 10.5376/lgg.2016.07.0008)

Abstract

The physical properties of different varieties of lathyrus viz., Ratan, Pratik, Mahateora, BIOR-231, Pusa-28, NLK-05, NLK-73, NLK-48, NLK-40 and NLK-36 were studied at moisture content of 7.90 to 19.40, 6.75 to 18.30, 9.48 to 21.02, 9.79 to 21.34, 9.52 to 21.04, 9.03 to 20.61, 9.91 to 21.49, 9.22 to 20.83, 9.42 to 21.03 and 9.10 to 20.71% (d.b.). The grain size, thousand grain weight and angle of repose, were found increased linearly and the average increase was found to be 8.07, 15.11 and 21.32%, respectively, with the corresponding increase in moisture content. The sphericity and porosity increased initially and then found decreased with further increase in moisture content. The bulk density and true density values decreased linearly and the average decrease was found to be 15.01 and 13.71%, respectively.

Keywords
Lathyrus; True density; Bulk density; Angle of repose

1 Introduction

Legumes are generally grown throughout the world. Legumes / pulses are regarded as a very important group connected with plant foods stuffs, particularly inside the developing globe. A significant section of human population relies upon legumes since staple foods for subsistence, particularly in combination with cereals. Legumes are generally consumed after processing into various products like milling into “dhal” puffing or roasting into snack foods, grinding into flour for different food preparations. Physical properties of grains and their dependence on moisture content are of paramount importance in designing equipment for handling, storing and processing. The lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus L.) is food, feed and fodder legume (pulse) crop. The grain can be boiled whole but most often they are processed through a pulse (dal) mill to obtain splits. Dal is the most common item sold in retail markets. The flour, made by grinding either whole grain or splits is also sold in the market as besan. The major lathyrus growing states in India are Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Rotter et al. (1991) gave the composition for lathyrus as; energy 362.3 cal, protein 31.6%, fat 2.7%, nitrogen-free extract 51.8%, crude fibre 1.1% and ash 2.2%.

 

To design a machine for handling, cleaning, conveying, storing and milling, the physical properties of lathyrus at different moisture contents must be known. Therefore, present study was planned with objective to determine different moisture dependent physical properties of lathyrus.

 

2 Results

2.1 Grain size

The grain size increased linearly with increase in moisture content (Table 1). The average percent increase in grain sizes of the lathyrus grains were 8.07%. The results in agreement with the earlier findings for lentil seeds (Amin et al., 2004) and lathyrus (Zewdu and Solomon, 2008).

 

2.2 Sphericity

The results indicated that the sphericity of lathyrus grains at different moisture content increased initially and further decreased with increase in moisture content.

 

2.3 Bulk density

A linear decreasing trend was observed in values of bulk density (Table 1). The average percent decrease in bulk density of thelathyrus grains was 15.01%.

 

2.4 True density

The true density values decreased linearly with increase in moisture content. The average percent decrease in bulk density of the grains was 13.71%.

 

2.5 Porosity

The porosity of lathyrus grain increased initially and then decreased with increase in moisture content.

 

2.6 Thousand grain weight

The linear increase in thousand grain weight with increase in the moisture content was observed. Similar results of effect of grain moisture on thousand grain weight have been reported for white specked red kidney beans (Isik and Unal, 2007).

 

2.7 Angle of repose

The angle of repose showed an increasing trend with moisture content. The average percent increase in thousand grain weight was 21.32 %.

 

3 Discussion

The initial increase of sphericity could due to relatively proportional increase in length, width and thickness. However, beyond second moisture content there was relatively greater increase in length as compared to width and thickness which might probably resulted in slight reduction in sphericity (Zewdu and Solomon, 2008). Previous studies for other grains had indicated that sphericity could be affected by moisture content in different ways. An initial increase in sphericity upto 20% of moisture content and a decrease with further increase in moisture content was reported for okra seed (Sahoo and Srivastava, 2002). This indicates that different grains might behave differently in terms of the relative changes in length, width and thickness which could affect sphericity.

 

The relative reduction in the densities at high moisture content could be attributed to less weight gain due to the added moisture in relation to the concomitant volumetric expansion of the grain. Similar trend has been observed for pigeonpea (Baryeh and Mangope, 2002) and green gram (Nimkar et al., 2001).

 

The decrease in true density value for the lathyrus grain with increase in moisture content might be attributed to the relatively higher true volume as compared to corresponding mass of the grain attained due to absorption of water. Similar trends were reported for moth gram (Nimkar et al., 2005).

 

The initial increase in porosity value might be due to the higher decrease in true density value than bulk density value. It also indicated that porosity of seeds of different crops could respond differently for changes in the moisture content, which could be attributed to the relative changes in length, width and thickness, and associated bulk and true densities. This observed trend of initial increase and then decrease for different varieties of lathyrus is in conformity with the results reported by Zewdu and Solomon (2008). At higher moisture content within the experimental range, grain might tend to stick together resulting in better stability and less flow ability, which increases the value of angle of repose. Similar results have been reported for red bean (Kiani et al., 2008).

 

 

Table 1 Physical properties of different varieties of lathyrus as affected by moisture content % (d.b.). Note: Mean of five replications; values in the parenthesis indicates standard deviation

 

4 Conclusions

 

The study concludes that the grain size, thousand grain weight, and angle of repose increased linearly with increase in moisture content. The bulk and true densities decreased linearly with increase in moisture content, whereas, the sphericity and porosity exhibited an initial increase followed by a decrease with increase in moisture content for different varieties of lathyrus.

 

5 Material and Methods

5.1 Raw material and sample preparation

Ten different varieties samples of lathyrus viz.,Ratan, Pratik, Mahateora, BIOR-231, Pusa-28, NLK-05, NLK-73, NLK-48, NLK-40 and NLK-36 were received from All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Lathyrus, Nagpur Moisture content of grain samples of known weight (about 25 g) was determined following a standard oven drying method (Nimkar et al., 2005). Average of five replications was noted and reported as moisture content of the samples. The initial moisture content of lathyrus sample when brought to the laboratory was found to be 7.90, 6.75, 9.48, 9.79, 9.52, 9.03, 9.91, 9.22, 9.42 and 9.10% (d.b.), respectively.

 

Physical properties of raw lathyrus were investigated in the simulated moisture range of 7.90 to 19.40, 6.75 to 18.30, 9.48 to 21.02, 9.79 to 21.34, 9.52 to 21.04, 9.03 to 20.61, 9.91 to 21.49, 9.22 to 20.83, 9.42 to 21.03 and 9.10 to 20.71 % (d.b.) respectively, since harvesting, threshing, transportation, drying, milling and storage operations of lathyrus are performed in between these ranges. Therefore, it was decided to elevate the moisture content up to desired level. In order to attain the desired moisture levels for the study method suggested by Sacilik et al. (2003) was used.

 

5.2 Determination of physical properties

The physical properties, namely grain size, sphericity, bulk density, true density, porosity, thousand grain weight and angle of repose of lathyrus were studied at three different levels of moisture content (Table 1), for each of the variety in order to relate the property to moisture content. The average of five replications was reported for each of the property.

 

Geometric mean diameter (grain size) is the cube root of product of three semi-axes of grain. Three major principle axes (length, width and thickness) of grain were measured with the help of Vernier caliper (Mitutoyo, Japan) having least count of 0.02 mm. The grain size (Dm) of the grain was calculated by using the relationship used by Kenghe et al. (2013). The exact orientation of the grain in determination of different axis is as given in Figure 1. The average observation of 100 randomly selected lathyrus grain was calculated and standard deviation was also determined.

 

To measure the bulk density of the grain, the method given in ISI (1967) was used. True densities were determined with toluene displacement method (Kenghe et al., 2013). The porosity was calculated as the ratio of the difference in true density and bulk density to the true density values. For determination of thousand grain weight the procedure as described in 968) was adopted. Sphericity was calculated by using the equation given by Mohesenin (1986). The angle of repose is the angle with the horizontal at which the material will stand when piled. This was determined by using the apparatus (Figure 2) consisted of an adjustable plywood box of 140 × 160 ×35 mm and an electrical motor to lifting the box. The adjustable box was filled with the sample, and then was inclined gradually by the electrical motor allowing the grains to follow and assume a natural slope; this was measured as emptying angle of repose. A similar apparatus has been used by Tabatabaeefar (2003) and Yalcin (2006).

 

 

Figure 1 Characteristic dimensions of lathyrus

 

 

Figure 2 Apparatus for measuring emptying angle of repose. Note: a: adjustable box; b: electrical key; c: gauge

 

References

Amin M.N., Hossain M.A., and Roy K.C., 2004, Effect of moisture content onphysical properties of lentil seeds, J. Food Eng., 65: 83-87.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2003.12.006

 

Baryeh E.A., and Mangope B.K., 2002, Some physical properties of pigeon pea (cv. QP38), J. Food Eng., 56: 59-65.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(02)00148-6

 

ISI, 1967. IS: (4333 Part- III) Methods of analysis for food grains, Determination of hectoliter weight, Indian Standard Institution, New Delhi.

 

ISI, 1968. IS: (4333 Part- IV) Methods of analysis for food grains, Weight of 1000 grains, Indian Standard Institution, New Delhi.

 

Isik E., and Unal H., 2007, Moisture dependent physical properties of white speckled red kidney bean grains, J. Food Eng., 82 (2): 209-216.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.02.012

 

Kiani D., Kiani M., Minaei S., Maghsoudi H., and Ghasemi V.M., 2008, Moisture dependent physical properties of red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grains, Int. Agrophysics, 22: 231- 237.

 

Kenghe R.N., Nimkar P.M., and Shirkole S.S., 2013, Moisture dependent physical properties of lathyrus, J Food Sci Technol, 50(5): 856-867.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0428-7

 

Mohsenin N.N., 1986, Physical properties of plant and animal materials, 2 nd edn, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers: New York.

 

Nimkar P.M., and Chattopadhyay P.K., 2001, Some physical properties of green gram, J. Agric. Eng. Res., 80 (2): 183-189.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jaer.2000.0664

 

Nimkar P.M., Madwe D.S., and Dudhe R.M., 2005, Physical properties of moth gram, Int. J. Biosystems Eng., 91(2): 183-189.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2005.03.004

 

Rotter R.G., Marquardt R.R., and Campbell C.G., 1991, The nutritional value of low lathyrogenic lathyrus (sativus L.) for growing chicks, Britan Poultry Sci.,  32: 1055-1067.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00071669108417429

 

Sacilik K., Ozturk R., and Keskin R., 2003, Some physical properties of hemp seed, Int. J.Biosystems Eng., 86: 191-198.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1537-5110(03)00130-2

 

Sahoo P.K., and Srivastava A.P., 2002, Physical properties of okra seed, Int. J. Biosystems Eng., 83 (4): 441-448.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/bioe.2002.0129

 

Tabatabaeefar A., 2003, Moisture dependent physical properties of wheat, Int. Agrophysics, 17: 207-211.

 

Yalcin I., 2006, Physical properties of cowpea seed, J. Food Eng., 79: 59-62.

 

Zewdu A., and Solomon W., 2008, Moisture dependent physical properties of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) seeds, Int. J. Agric. Eng. (CIGR e-journal) Manuscript, FP 06 027 10, 102 -109.

 

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