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Agro-chemical Residue Contamination Profile of Rice-field Mosquito Larval Habitats and Effects on Activities of Insecticide Resistance Marker-Enzymes in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), in an Urban Area of North-central Nigeria | Olayemi 1 | Molecular Entomology

Research Article

Agro-chemical Residue Contamination Profile of Rice-field Mosquito Larval Habitats and Effects on Activities of Insecticide Resistance Marker-Enzymes in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), in an Urban Area of North-central Nigeria  

Israel Kayode Olayemi1 , Muhammed Isah2 , Joshua Omoniyi Kolawole Abioye3 , Azubuike Christian Ukubuiwe4
1 Entomology Unit, Department of Animal Biology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
2 Entomology Unit, Department of Animal Biology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
3 Department of Biological Sciences, Bingham University, Karu, Nigeria
4 Entomology Unit, Department of Animal Biology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
Molecular Entomology, 2019, Vol. 10, No. 1   
Received: 24 Nov., 2018    Accepted: 10 Apr., 2019    Published: 10 Apr., 2019
© 2019 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract

The ever increasing farming activities and use of synthetic insecticide to control weeds and insects has created multifaceted ecological problem in Minna. These include advent of species of mosquitoes that are resistant to insecticides as well as high insecticide residue in the environment.  During this study (June – September, 2017), occurrence and distribution of agro-chemicals in rice farms and level of resistance enzyme in Culex quinquefasciatus were studied. Soil were collected from rice farms where agro-chemicals are used and not used (Control) and subjected to Gas Chromatography /Mass Spectometry (GCMS) analysis. Standard WHO methods were adapted to determine the specific activities of insecticides detoxifying enzymes; esterase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The finding of the study established that the bulk of insecticide residue in the soil extracts from rice farm are carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphate and pyrethroids. GCMS analysis revealed organophosphate (monocrotophos) and carbamates (bendiocarb) were higher in abundance. The study also established significant difference in enzyme levels in the mosquitoes. The study demonstrated that pre-exposure of mosquito larvae to agro-chemicals used in farmlands (rice farmlands) can lead to development of cross-resistance to public health insecticides.

Keywords
Cross-resistance; Enzymes; Susceptibility; Minna

(The advance publishing of the abstract of this manuscript does not mean final published, the end result whether or not published will depend on the comments of peer reviewers and decision of our editorial board.)

(The advance publishing of the abstract of this manuscript does not mean final published, the end result whether or not published will depend on the comments of peer reviewers and decision of our editorial board.)
The complete article is available as a Provisional PDF if requested. The fully formatted PDF and HTML versions are in production.
Molecular Entomology
• Volume 10
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pornliz suckporn porndick pornstereo . Israel Kayode Olayemi
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