Genetic Variability for Yield and Yield Component Traits in Advanced F3 and F4 Generations of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.)  

Abid.S. Yerimani , Subhash Mehetre , M.N. Kharde
Department of Botany, Padmashri Vikhe patil college, Pavaranagar, Pune University, India
Author    Correspondence author
Molecular Plant Breeding, 2013, Vol. 4, No. 16   doi: 10.5376/mpb.2013.04.0016
Received: 23 May, 2013    Accepted: 28 May, 2013    Published: 29 May, 2013
© 2013 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Yerimani et al., 2013, Genetic Variability for Yield and Yield Component Traits in Advanced F3 And F4 Generations of Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.)]., Molecular Plant Breeding, Vol.4, No.16 136-140 (doi: 10.5376/mpb.2013.04.0016)

Abstract

The present investigation aimed to study genetic variability generated from the Gulyal white X Maruti cross in F3 and F4 generation to make effective selections for improving productivity. The study indicated that the higher magnitude of variability were recorded in F3 and F4 generation for 50 per cent flowering, number of secondary branches, number of seeds per pod, number of pod per plant, seeds yield per plant and seed yield (Kg/ha) and moderate variability observed in pod bearing length and test weight (gm). The higher heritability and genetic advance per mean were recorded in F3 and F4 generation for 50 per cent flowering, number of secondary branches, number of seeds per pod, number of pod per plant, seeds yield per plant and seed yield (Kg/ha) that implicate additive gene action in inheritance of these traits thus phenotypic selection would be effective in yield improvement .

Keywords
Genetic variability; Gulyal white; Maruti;Yield

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is an important leguminous short lived perennial cultivated as annual crop in semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is generally cultivated as a sole crop or as a mixed crop with short duration cereals or legumes as well as with other crops like cotton and groundnut. Across the globe, pigeonpea is cultivated on 4.86/million ha, with an annual production of 4.1 million tons and productivity of 844 kg/ha. India is the leading producer of pigeonpea in the world accounting for 4.09/million ha area, 3.27 million tons of production and productivity of 800 kg/ha (DCA 2011). Pigeonpea is a hardy and drought tolerant crop assuring sustainable returns from marginal lands with minimum input, hence it is considered as very suitable crop for sustainable agriculture. Pigeonpea seeds contain 20%~24% protein and reasonable amounts of essential amino acid making it an important source of dietary protein, mainly in vegetarian-based diets. The seed and pod husks make quality feed, whereas dry branches and stems serve as domestic fuel. Fallen leaves from the plant provide vital nutrient to the plant also enriches soil through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (Varsheny et al., 2010). India is the world largest pigeonpea producer accounting for 90 per cent of the world production (Ganapathy et al., 2009; 2010). New varieties have to be developed to attain high yield potential. For this, basic information on genetic variability and inheritance of yield and its component traits are essential to determine the most efficient breeding approaches (Saxena, 2008).

Pigeonpea though predominantly a self pollinated crop has cross pollination ranging from 5% to 70% (Saxena et al., 1990). The choice of an appropriate selection/breeding method and its success for improvement of quantitative traits largely depends on the extent of genetic variability present in segregating material and gene action. Knowledge on genetic architecture of yield and related traits plays an important role in deciding breeding strategies and methodologies for crop improvement. In comparison to other economically important crops, relatively less effort has been made to understand the genetics of important quantitative traits in pigeonpea. Both additive and dominant/ non-additive effects have been reported to be important in determining yield, plant height, and protein content (Saxena and Sharma, 1990). Pleiotropic effects of gene, physiological changes, and highly sensitive nature of pigeonpea towards the environmental changes make it difficult to interpret the inheritance of yield and associated traits (Byth et al., 1981). Information about nature and magnitude of gene action can be useful for breeding program (Shashikumar et al., 2010). Yield and its component characters that are quantitative in nature exhibit all the three types of gene action (Saxena, 2008). Knowledge of gene action, interaction effect and heritability involved in several quantitatively inherited traits (Dias et al., 2004; Amand and Wehner, 2001) helps in deciding appropriate breeding program. Thus, the present investigation aimed to study genetic variability generated from the Gulyal white×Maruti cross in F3 and F4 generation to make effective selections for improving productivity.
Results and Discussion
The analysis of variance (ANOVA) for 12 quantitative traits in F3 generation revealed highly significant variation among 180 F3 recombinant lines and check genotypes. Similarly, these recombinants and checks recorded highly significant variation in F4 generation also for all the 12 quantitative traits (Table 1) studies viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, pod bearing length (cm), test weight (g), seed yield per plant (g), seed yield (Kg/ha). It was evident from the present investigation that highly significant genetic variation was observed among the pigeonpea recombinant lines in F3 and F4 generation with respect to days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, number of seeds per plant, pod bearing length (cm), test weight (g), seed yield per plant (g), seed yield (kg/ha).


Table 1 Mean sum of squares (ANOVA) for 12 quantitative traits in recombinant line of Gullya white×Maruti cross in F3 and F4 generation

The results of the variance component in this study indicated that the phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation for all traits in both F3 and F4 generation. This result is in accord with reported by several authors (Damarany, 1994; Umaharan et al., 1997; Ubi et al., 2001; Omoigui et al., 2006) in cowpea. The magnitude difference in GCV and PCV were recorded higher in F3 and F4 generation (Figure 1; Table 2) for days to 50 per cent flowering, number secondary branches, number of seeds per pod, number of pods per plant, pod bearing length, seed yield per plant and seed yield (kg/ha). Similar observations were made by Ghodke et al (1994).


Figure 1 Phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variance for 12 quantitative traits of Gulyal white×Maruti in F3 and F4 generation


Table 2 Genetic variability estimates for 12 quantitative traits in recombinant lines of F3 generation in Gulyal white x Maruti cross in pigeonpea

The minimum magnitude difference in GCV and PCV for all other traits like number of seeds per plant, pod bearing length and test weight (gm) were studied implied that the trait are mostly governed by genetic factors with little role of environment in the genetic expression of these characters. Thus the selection of these traits on of the basis of the phenotypic value may effective. W. Manggoel et al (2012) and Nausherwan et al (2008) reported that polygenic variation may be phenotypic, genotypic or environmental and the relative values of these three types of coefficient gives an idea about magnitude of variability.
The magnitude of broad sense heritability ranged from 54 per cent for days to maturity in F3 and number of primary branches in F4 to 93 per cent for days to 50 per cent flowering in both generations (Figure 2; Table 3). Similarly the higher magnitude of heritability was observed in seed yield per plant (gm) (83.69%), no of primary branches per plant (82.47%), no of pods per plant (80.48%), in F3 and seed yield (kg/ha) (82.82%), no of pods per plant (82.62%), pod bearing length (cm) (81.72%), test weight(gm) (81.39%) in F4. The broad sense heritability estimates in this study were generally high for all the traits in both generations. High heritability suggested the major role of genetic constitution in the expression of the character and such traits are considered to be dependence for genetic up gradation of pigeonpea. The high heritability recorded in this study were in agreements the values reported from several other worker in pigeonpea (Vange and Egbe Moses, 2009; Ghodke et al., 1994; Deshmukh et al., 2000; Basavarajaiah 2000; Satish Kumar et al., 2006; Firoz mahamad et al., 2006; D. Bhadru, 2011) According to Ubi et al (2001). Genetic advance over the mean were observed range from 8.89% (days to maturity) to 58.04% (No of seeds per pod in F3) and from 9.86% (days to maturity) to 51.51% (Days to 50% flowering in F4). High heritability coupled with genetic advance over mean in days to 50% flowering, no of primary branches, no of pod per plant, seed yield per plant (gm), seed yield (kg/ha) in both the generation. These findings are in agreement with the earlier reports of Panda and Singh (1997), Singh et al (1998) Dhall et al (2001) and Dhankar and Dhankar (2002). Heritability estimates along with genetic advance are more useful in predicting the resultant effect for the selection of the best individuals from a population. High broad sense heritability value coupled with genetic advance indicate the predominant additive gene action in the expression of these traits and thus they can be improved through individual plant selection (Johnson et al., 1955; Panse, 1957; Vange and Egbe Moses, 2009; Makeen et al., 2007; D. Bhadru, 2011).


Figure 2 Broad sense heritability estimated for 12 quantitative traits in recombinant lines of Gulyal white×Maruti F3 and F4 generation
 


Table 3 Genetic variability estimates for 12 quantitative traits in recombinant lines of F4 generation in Gulyal white×Maruti cross in pigeonpea


In this study we found that in both F3 and F4 generations days to 50 per cent flowering, number of secondary branches, number of seeds per pod, number seeds per plant, pod bearing length, seed yield per plant and seed yield (kg/ha) recorded consistently high heritability and high genetic advance percent per mean that implicate additive type of gene action in inheritance of these traits thus phenotypic selection would be effective in yield improvement.
Material and method
The segregating material was generated by hybridization of Gulyal white with wilt resistant Maruti, A total number of 180 F2 were selfed and advanced to F3 generation. F2 plants were sown during Kharif 2009 at Agriculture Research Station Gulbarga, evaluated them for yield and yield component traits. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications. The sowing was done with spacing 30 cm×60 cm. Each 20 plants in F3 progeny was grown in single row of 6 M with five plants were randomly chosen and tagged for recording data on various morphological traits plant height (cm), number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, number of seeds per plant, pod bearing length (cm), and other traits viz. seed yield (Kg/ha), seed yield per plant (g) test weight (g), days to 50% flowering, days to maturity were recorded on plant basis. The analysis of variance carried out as suggested by Panse and Sunhatme (1985). Seeds collected from selfed F3 plants were used to raise F4 generation in the next kahrif season during 2010. These 180 progenies were again evaluated in Randomized Block Design with as two replications at Agriculture Research Station Gulbarga. Five plants were randomly chosen and tagged for recording 12 quantitative traits recorded in F3 generation. Data recorded from both F3 and F4 generations were statistically analyzed (Panse and Sunhatme) computed genetic parameters viz., phenotypic and genotypic coefficient variation was calculated as per the formula suggested by Burton and DeVene (1953). Heritability (broad sense) was computed as suggested by Honson et al (1965) and genetic advance as per of mean was estimated according to Jhonson et al (1955).
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Varshney R.K., 2010, Pigeonpea genomic initiative (PGI): an international effort to improve crop productivity of pigeonpea (Cajanus Cajan L.), Mol breed., 26(3): 393-408
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