Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Physalis peruviana  

Tuğçe DEM?R1 , Mehmet Özgün Ã–ZEN1,2 , E. Esin HAMEÅž-KOCABAÅž1
1. Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey 2. Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gümüşhane University 29100 Gümüşhane, Turkey
Author    Correspondence author
Medicinal Plant Research, 2014, Vol. 4, No. 4   doi: 10.5376/mpr.2014.04.0004
Received: 17 Feb., 2014    Accepted: 25 Feb., 2014    Published: 28 Feb., 2014
© 2014 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract

Physalis peruviana has widely used in folk medicine as a medicinal herb for treating diseases since ancient times. It is a pharmacologically valuable natural product due to the presence of biologically active compounds such as phytosterols, vitamins, essential minerals, withanolides and physalins. In this study, we aimed to observe the antioxidant capacity and cytotoxic activity of edible parts of P. peruviana on different cancer cell lines [human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29), human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line (LNCap), human hepatoma cell line (Hep3B), human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7), human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y), human osteosarcoma cell line (SaOS-2)] and a non-cancerous kidney epithelial cells from African green monkey (Vero) cell line. Antioxidant activity of the fruit extracts was determined with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazil) radical scavenging method and cytotoxic effect was observed by using MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. For antioxidant capacity of the crude extract, IC50 value was calculated as 0.43±0.003 mg/ml. IC50values of cytotoxicity for HT-29, Hep3B, SaOS-2 and SH-SY5Ycell lines for 48 h were determined as 40.79, 24.92, 15.44 and 44.24 µg/ml, respectively. Fruit extract of P. peruviana had no cytotoxic effect on MCF-7, LNCap and Vero cell lines.

Keywords
Antioxidant activit; Cytotoxic activity; DPPH; Physalis peruviana

Physalis peruviana is a member of the family “Solanacaceae” and genus “Physalis”. Homeland of Physalis peruviana is Andes region and nowadays South Africa and Colombia have the biggest market share as producers’ worldwide. P. peruvianais known with different names such as uchuva (in Columbia), uvilla (in Ecuador), aguaymanto (in Peru), topotopo (in Venezuela) and in English speaking countries it is known as “goldenberry” and “cape gooseberry” (Salazar et al., 2008; Puente et al., 2011). In Turkey, this fruit have become very popular and is called as “alt?n çilek”. P. peruviana has widely used in folk medicine as a medicinal herb for treating diseases such as malaria, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis, diuretic, rheumatism and cancer (Wu et al., 2004; Ramadan, 2011).

Recently, P. peruviana has become attractive because of its nutritional and medicinal properties. According to the published reports, presence of biologically active compounds such as phytosterols, vitamins, essential minerals, withanolides and physalins make it an important food supplement with medicinal properties (Puente et al., 2011). Phytosterols are known for especially their antioxidant capacity and reports show fruits of P. peruviana have antioxidant capacity (Wu et al., 2006; Vasco et al., 2008; Puente et al., 2011). The reason of orange colour of fruit is β-carotene which is the main active component of vitamin A. β-carotene and vitamin C content of P. peruviana provides its anticancerous function, associated with preventing accumulation of free radicals in tissues. Especially, withanolides and physalins are very important biologically active components for anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti tumor, immunomodulatory and antiparasitic properties. Cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects of P. peruviana leaves, stems and/or whole plant on different cell lines such as colon cancer, chronic myeloid leukomia, lung, breast and liver cancer cells were also reported (Wu et al., 2004; Zavala et al., 2006; Lan et al., 2009; Wu et al., 2009).

In this study, we aimed to observe the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of edible parts of P. peruviana.

1 Results
1.1 DPPH radical scavenging activity
DPPH radical scavenging activity assay is one of the most favourable methods for determination of antioxidant capacity of fruit samples due to its simplicity and reproducibility.

The DPPH scavenging activity of samples and ascorbic acid, as a control, was calculated according to their ability that cause reduction in initial absorbance of DPPH solution. The percentages of DPPH reduction against concentrations of samples and ascorbic acid were provided by graphs in Graph Pad Prism (R2=

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