Plant Growth Regulators and Nitrogen Responses on Improving Nutrient Content of Black Gram (Vigna mungo L.)  

K.Krishna Surendar1 , S. Vincent1 , Mallika Vanagamudi 2 , H. Vijayaraghavan1
1.Department of Crop Physiology, TNAU, Coimbatore-3, India;
2.Professor of Crop Physiology, Department of ACRC, TNAU, Coimbatore-3, India;
Author    Correspondence author
Plant Gene and Trait, 2013, Vol. 4, No. 12   doi: 10.5376/pgt.2013.04.0012
Received: 27 May, 2013    Accepted: 28 Jun., 2013    Published: 05 Aug., 2013
© 2013 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Surendar et al., 2013, Plant Growth Regulators and Nitrogen Responses on Improving Nutrient Content of Black Gram (Vigna mungo L.), Plant Gene and Trait, Vol.4, No.12 66-69 (doi: 10.5376/pgt.2013.04.0012)

Abstract

The present investigation was undertaken under field condition to study the effect of nutrients and plant growth regulators on growth and productivity of black gram variety CO 5. The leaf nutrient viz., nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content were estimated at different phenological phases of black gram. Significant increase in the N and P content of the leaf due to basal application of nitrogen 25 kg per hectare with foliar spray of urea 2% and 0.1 ppm brassinolide. The leaf potassium (K) content were also greatly enhanced by the basal application of nitrogen 25 kg per hectare with foliar spray of urea 2% and 0.1 ppm brassinolide treatment.

Keywords
Black gram;PGR; Nitrogen; Nutrient and yield

Black gram is one of the most important pulse crops in India because of its low cost and high quality protein. They play a major role in providing a balanced protein component in the diet of the people. Pulses contain a higher level of quality protein, nearly three times as much as cereals; therefore they are the cheapest and rich source of protein and essential amino acids and thus share a major protein of the vegetarian diet. Besides, the crops enrich the soil fertility and health in terms of addition of nitrogen and organic matter. Among pulses, black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper), occupies a unique place for its use as vegetable, and it is grown both as pure and mixed crop along with maize, cotton, sorghum and other millets. It is also known as urd bean, and it is an important pulse crop grown all over the world. It is a major component of the daily Indian diet and serves as a rich protein source (23.9%) besides; it also contains 60.4% carbohydrates. As per the World Health Organization every man needs 80 g of pulses per day and as per the Indian Council of Medical Research, every man needs minimum consumption of 47 g of protein per day to meet requirement of the body. But at present, the per capita availability of pulses is only 30~35 g per day. Therefore, there is a need for three fold increase in pulse production as that of current production. Black gram is indeterminate in its flowering and fruiting habits and there is a competition for available assimilates between vegetative and reproductive sinks. There is limitation of source (leaves) particularly at flowering and fruiting stage. Hence, there is a need to improve leaf nutrient content for growth and productivity of balck gram. Being a C3 plant, nutrient content in leaf are relatively less than cereals and the major yield components are pods per plant, seeds per plant and test weight of seeds. Apart from this genetic makeup, the major physiological constraints limiting its production are flower drop and fruit drop (Ojeaga and Ojehomon, 1972).This performance of the crops can be overcome by foliar application of growth regulating chemicals at the crucial stages of the crop, which is one of the latest trends in agriculture. The growth regulating chemicals bioregulators can improve the plant nutrient content and play a significant role in improving the productive potential of the crop. With this above background, the present investigation was carried out.

Result
Total nitrogen content (N) (%)
The Nitrogen (N) content was significantly influenced by the treatments at all the growth stages (Table 1). The N content at various stages of crop growth viz., vegetative (30 DAS), flowering (45 DAS), pod filling (60 DAS) and harvest stages ranged from 1.06% to 2.24 %, 1.86% to 2.84%, 1.62 to 2.06% and 0.74 to 1.12% respectively. The treatment T7 (N 25 kg/ha+ urea 2% + 0.1 ppm BR) measured higher N content of 2.24%, 2.84%, 2.06% and 1.12% at vegetative, flowering, pod filling and harvest stages, respectively.


Table 1 Effect of nitrogen nutrition and growth regulators on nitrogen content (%) in black gram at different growth stages


Total phosphorus content (P) (%)
The data presented in Table 2 revealed significant variations in the phosphorus (P) content of black gram CO 5 due to the various treatments imposed. The P content had increased up to flowering stage (45 DAS) and thereafter it declined till harvest. The P content at various growth stages viz., vegetative (30 DAS), flowering (45 DAS), pod filling (60 DAS) and harvest stages, ranged from 0.25 to 0.37%, 0.25 to 0.41%, 0.23 to 0.29% and 0.14 to 0.22%, respectively. The treatment T7 (N 25 kg/ha+urea 2%+0.1 ppm BR) recorded the highest P content of 0.37%, 0.41%, 0.29% and 0.22% at vegetative, flowering, pod filling and harvest stages, respectively.


Table 2 Effect of nitrogen nutrition and growth regulators on Phosphorus content (%) in black gram at different growth stages


Total potassium content (K) (%)
The data onpotassium (K) content of black gram variety CO 5 as influenced by the nutrients and plant growth regulators at various growth stages is presented in Table 3. The treatment T7 (N 25 kg/ha+urea 2%+0.1 ppm BR) recorded the highest P content at vegetative (1.59%), reproductive (2.47%), pod filling (1.48%) and harvest stages (1.09 %), respectively. Minimum contents of 0.78%, 1.29%, 1.01% and 0.84 % were for the treatment T1 (control) recorded lower values at all crop growth stages.


Table 3 Effect of nitrogen nutrition and growth regulators on Potassium content (%)in black gram at different growth stages


Discussion
Nitrogen is an essential element for the synthesis of proteins. Pulses, in general, require high amount of nitrogen for seed development nitrogen content in green gram foliage had been estimated to be around 89.4 kg/ha (Mitra et al., 1988). In the present study, the highest N content of 2.84% was recorded in the leaf at the time of flowering; however, at subsequent stages the reduced N content of leaf indicated the utilization of nitrogen for the seed development (Marschner, 1986). Depletion of nutrients from leaves caused reduction in nutrient content during seed filling period (Garcia and Hanway, 1976).
According to the result of the present study, the treatment combination N (25 kg/ha)+BR (0.1 ppm)+Urea (2%) was found highly effective in increasing the N content to the maximum level of 2.84 per cent at flowering, besides maintaining comparatively higher levels at the subsequent stages of growth. Similar to this finding, Prabakaran (2002) recorded significantly higher N content in stem and leaves of black gram due to foliar spray of 1 % Urea. The higher beneficial effect of foliar spraying of Urea could be due to the supply of alternative source of nitrogen for the plants, which could show poor absorption of nitrogen through root system (Manian et al., 1987; Srivastava and Srivastava, 1994). Bindu Joseph (2000) revealed the beneficial effect of BR in increasing the nitrogen content of the groundnut shoot, besides enhancing the phosphorus and potassium content of the shoot. According to Dudde et al (1979), N and P content of groundnut leaf increased sharply up to peg formation stage in response to foliar spray of BR. In tobacco, a significant increase in P uptake was recorded by Han et al (1988) due to foliar application of BR. In rice, BR application showed an increase in N uptake (Mai et al., 1989). Dogra and Thukral (1998) demonstrated the favourable effect of BR in increasing the uptake of N, P and K in maize. This enhancement in nutrient uptake might be due to changes in root permeability and cation exchange capacity of the root. This result strongly supported the findings of the present study.
Besides enhancing the N content, the same treatment combination was also resulted in significantly improving P and K content of the leaf particularly at the time of flowering. Brassinosteroids when applied on different plants, showed an enhancement in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and specific enzymes. Kalinich et al (1985) observed that BR application to bean epicotyls increased the ATPase activity. Phosphorus, being structural unit of NADP and ATP, plays a significant role in photosynthesis, glycolysis, respiration and fatty acid synthesis (Dogra and Thukral, 1998). Higher potassium content enhanced turgor maintenance and active growth of cells leading to better plant growth. Therefore BR, besides regulating various metabolic activities, also enhanced water and nutrient uptake resulting in increased protein synthesis, growth and finally yields.
Materials and Methods
The present investigation was undertaken under field condition to study the effect of nutrients and plant growth regulators on growth and productivity of black gram variety CO 5. The research experiment was carried out at Millet Breeding Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during July to October, 2007. Growth regulators like Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA), Salicylic Acid (SA), Cycocel (CCC), Brassinosteriod (BR), Humic Acid and the nutrients such as Nitrogen, DAP, Boric Acid, Ferrous Sulphate, Zinc Sulphate were used. The data were statistically analyzed with the Design of Randomized Block Design with three replication and the Plot size of 4 x 3 m with Spacing of 30 cm×10 cm. in this research study having nine treatments and the details are, T1 - Control , T2-N 25 Kg / ha+Urea 2 %+NAA 40 ppm, T3- N 50 Kg/ha+CCC 200 ppm, T4-N 25 Kg/ha+Urea 2%+CCC 200 ppm, T5 - N 25 Kg/ha+ Urea 2%+Humic acid 0.1%, T6-N 25 Kg / ha + Urea 2%+Salicylic acid 100 ppm, T7-N 25 Kg/ha+Urea 2%+Brassinosteriod 0.1 ppm, T8 - N 25 Kg/ha+Urea 2%+ZnSO4 0.5%+FeSO4 0.5+Borax 0.2%, T9-N 25 Kg/ha+Water spray. The nutrient contents of the leaves were estimated at all phenological stages of the crop harvest stage and the values expressed as per cent on dry weight basis.The nitrogen content of the leaf was estimated by using the method of Humphries (1956) and expressed in per cent.The phosphorus content of the leaf was estimated as per the method described by Jackson (1962) and expressed in per cent.The potassium content of the leaf was estimated using the Flame Photometer (Systronics Type 21) and the content expressed in per cent (Jackson, 1962).
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