Genetic Variability Studies in Induced Mutants of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)  

Prakash Natikar , Madhusudan K , Udaykumar Kage , Nadaf H L , B N Motagi
University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India;
Author    Correspondence author
Plant Gene and Trait, 2013, Vol. 4, No. 16   doi: 10.5376/pgt.2013.04.0016
Received: 17 Jul., 2013    Accepted: 20 Aug., 2013    Published: 01 Sep., 2013
© 2013 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Natikar et al., 2013, Genetic Variability Studies in Induced Mutants of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Plant Gene and Trait, Vol.4, No.16 86-89 (doi: 10.5376/pgt.2013.04.0016)

Abstract

Abstract: An investigation was carried out to elicit information on genetic variability and for yield and its component traits in 34 mutants of Morden and 32 mutants of DSF 15B in M3 generation progenies of sunflower along with control. Most of the characters exhibited moderate to high variability. All the characters exhibited moderate to high heritability in mutants.

Keywords
Induced mutants; GCV; PCV; Heritability and sunflower

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. 2n=2x=34) belongs to the genus Helianthus, family ‘Asteraceae’, tribe ‘Heliantheae’, subtribe Helianthinae, which includes 20 genera with 67 species. In the world it is cultivated on an area of 23.83 m.ha with the production of 32.16 mt (Anon., 2010). In India it ranks fourth in area (1.48 m.ha) and production (1.00 mt) (Anon., 2010). In India, Karnataka followed by Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu are the traditional sunflower growing states; Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh are promising spring sunflower growing states. In Karnataka, sunflower is grown in an area of 1.026 m.ha with annual production of 0.586 mt and productivity of 571 kg/ha (Anon., 2008). The North Karnataka districts contribute a major share to sunflower production in Karnataka. Among them, Bijapur ranks first in area and production followed by Raichur, Gulbarga, Bagalkot and Bellary.

Sunflower is the rich source of edible oil (40%~52%). Sunflower oil is considered as good for health from the point of high concentration of PUFA (linoleic acid 55%~60% and oleic acid 25%~30%) which are known to reduce the risk of coronary diseases. Sunflower is one of the useful contingent crops especially under rainfed cultivation owing to its day neutral nature and tolerance to temperature and soil moisture regimes.
Genetic diversity at genotypic level is the pre requisite for selection of varieties for plant breeding programmes and the diversity can be detected by several means.
Induced mutations have been applied for the past 40 years to produce mutant cultivars in sunflower by changing plant characteristics for significant increase in plant productivity (Jain 2005). Mutagenic treatments, usually on seed, have induced high-oleic, semi-dwarfs and dwarfs, male-sterile plants and other interesting variants such as earliness and seeds with thin hull (Jan and Rutger 1988).
Hence the present study was under taken to estimate the genetic variability studies in M3 generation of sunflower developed through induced mutagenesis.
Results and Discussion
All the mutants under the study displayed considerable amount of differences in their mean performance with respect to all the characters studied. This had also been exemplified by highly significant mean sum of squares for these traits which indicated that the mutants used for the study were genetically diverse.
The mutants showed a wide range of variation, which provides ample scope for selection of superior and desired mutants by the plant breeders for further improvement of sunflower. An assessment of heritable and non-heritable components in the total variability is indispensable in adopting suitable breeding procedure. The heritable portion of the overall observed variation can be ascertained by studying the components of variation such as coefficients of genotypic and phenotypic variability, heritability and predicted genetic advance.
The phenotypic and genotypic coefficients (Table 1) of variation were highest for plant height, seed yield per plant and oil yield, and moderate for stem diameter, head diameter, seed filling percentage, hundred seed weight, hull content and oil content in M 3 generation of Morden. In case of DSF 15B mutants (Table 2) GCV and PCV were high for seed yield and oil yield and moderate for plant height, stem diameter, head diameter, hundred seed weight and oil content.


Table 1 Estimates of range, mean and different genetic parameters for yield and yield attributing traits in M3 generation of mutants of sunflower variety Morden



Table 2 Estimates of range, mean and different genetic parameters for yield and yield attributing traits in M3 generation of sunflower variety DSF-15B mutants


The traits like seed yield per plant and oil yield per ha recorded high values of phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation suggesting that these characters are under the influence of genetic control. Hence, simple selection can be relied upon and practiced for further improvement of these characters. These results are in line with
Gangappa (1991), Patil (1993), Sujatha et al (2002), Khan and Islam (1991), Muhammad et al (1992), Khan et al (2007), Azam et al (2011).
Heritability estimates reveals the heritable portion of variability present in different characters. The knowledge of heritability enables the plant breeder to decide the course of selection procedure to be followed under a given situation. However, heritability values coupled with genetic advance would be more reliable (Johnson et al., 1955) and useful in formulating selection procedure. In the present study, heritability estimates in broad sense and genetic advance as per cent of mean were estimated.
Heritability estimates were high for all the characters studied, except for days to fifty percent flowering, in case of mutants of Morden and in case of mutants of DSF 15B, heritability estimates were high for all the characters, except for days to fifty percent flowering, stem diameter, seed filling percentage, seed yield per plant, seed yield per ha and oil yield per ha but seed yield per plant, seed yield per ha and oil yield per ha recorded moderate heritability. This suggested the greater effectiveness of selection and improvement to be expected for these characters in future breeding programme as the genetic variance is mostly is due to additive gene expression. These results are in accordance with the findings of Chaudary and Anand (1987), Gangappa (1991), Patil et al (1996), Chikkadevaiah et al (1998), Sujatha et al (2002), Rao et al (2003), Mogali and Virupakshappa (1994), Khan et al (2007).
Heritability estimates were high for all the characters studied, except for days to fifty percent flowering, in case of mutants of Morden and in case of mutants of DSF 15B, heritability estimates were high for all the characters, except for days to fifty percent flowering, stem diameter, seed filling percentage, seed yield per plant, seed yield per ha and oil yield per ha but seed yield per plant, seed yield per ha and oil yield per ha recorded moderate heritability. This suggested the greater effectiveness of selection and improvement to be expected for these characters in future breeding programme as the genetic variance is mostly is due to additive gene expression. These results are in accordance with the findings of Chaudary and Anand (1987), Gangappa (1991), Patil et al (1996), Chikkadevaiah et al (1998), Sujatha et al (2002), Mogali and Virupakshappa (1994), Rao et al (2003).
From the present study on the basis of variability and character association, it could be concluded that the induced mutant lines exhibited higher magnitude of genetic variability.
Materials and Methods:
A field experiment was conducted to study the genetic variability in induced mutants of sunflower at Saidapur farm of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during rabhi season of 2010-11. The experiment was laid out in randomized blockdesign with two replications. Thirty four plants with high seed yield (>10 g per plant) from M2 generation of Morden and thirty two plants from M2 generation of DSF 15B were selected, raised as plant to row progenies in randomized block design with two replications in M3 generation. The inter and intra-row spacing was 60 cm and 30 cm respectively. Each mutant and checks were in two rows of 3 m length.
The recommended packages of practices were followed to raise a good crop stand.In all the entries, five random competitive plants were tagged in each replication for recording observations on different quantitative traits. The mean of five plants observations was used for the statistical analysis. Observations were recorded on days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, plant height, stem diameter, head diameter, seed filling percentage, 100 seed weight, hull content, oil content, seed yield per plant and oil yield kg per ha.
The analysis of variance was done as suggested by Cochran and Cox (1957). Variability for different characters was estimated as suggested by Burton and Devane (1953). Heritability and expected genetic advance was calculated according to Robinson et al (1949) and Johnson et al (1955) respectively.
References
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Sujatha H. L., Chikkadevaiah, and Nandini., 2002, Genetic variability study in sunflower inbreds. Helia, 25: 93-99
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