GENETIC VARIABILITY AND HERITABILITY ESTIMATES IN LARGE SEEDED GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L.) GENOTYPES
G. G. Wijesinghe1
1 Grain Legumes and Oil Crops Research and Development Center, Angunakolapelessa, Sri Lanka
2 Rice Research Station, Bombuwela, Sri Lanka
3 Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Kamburupitiya, Sri Lanka
Plant Gene and Trait, 2016, Vol. 7, No. 15
Received: 28 Sep., 2016 Accepted: 21 Nov., 2016 Published: 09 Dec., 2016
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Groundnut is considered as an important oil seed throughout the world and having a unique nutritional composition. According to the utilization pattern groundnut can be categorized in to oil types and confectionary types. In confectionary type groundnut, there are some important trade attributes. In developing new varieties with quality characteristics for confectionary products seed size is one of the important traits. In Sri Lanka there is a trend to consume jumbo type groundnut products. Hence there is a need for developing varieties which can fulfill the market demand as well as adaptable to local cropping systems. Department of Agriculture, Sri Lanka has received confectionary type/large seeded groundnut accessions from various foreign sources. There is a need to evaluate the available large seeded groundnut genotypes to identify the extent of genetic variability within them and heritability of pod and kernel yield, for developing groundnut varieties. Nineteen exotic groundnut genotypes were evaluated at Grain Legumes and Oil Crops Research and Development Center, Angunakolapelessa, Sri Lanka for their agronomic and yield performances. Results revealed that growth and yield parameters tested were significantly different among lines indicating that there is a significant amount of variability among the genotypes. Significant (p=0.01) differences among groundnut genotypes for characters such as number of pods per plant, height of main stem, plant spread, days to 50% flowering, 100 seed weight and days to maturity were observed. All the genotypes tested were taken more than 100 days to mature. ICGV 05182, ICGV 06229, ICGV 05174 and ICGV 06211 genotypes were matured earlier than other types. This is one of the important traits, which can influence on the acceptability of the local farmers. Among the genotypes, ICGV 05200 has yielded the highest pod weight per plant. Significant amount of variability was shown for this character. Pod yield were ranged from 1500 to 4500 kg/ha. ICGV 05200 and ICGV 05198 has high pod yields of more than 4000 kg/ha. The recommended variety Walawa has yielded around 3000kg/ha, while the yields of most of the other lines varied from 1500 to 2000 kg/ha. 100 seed weight and days to maturity were highly heritable characters while pod weight per plant and number of pods per plant were controlled by environmental factors for about 50 %. The results can be used in decision making in order to make improvements of the groundnut breeding program.
Groundnut; Genotypes; Variability; Heritability
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