Research Report

Identification of Superior Indigenous Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Germplasm for Crop Improvement  

Rudrasen Singh Raikwar , R.K. Saraf
JNKVV, Regional Agriculture Research Station Sagar (MP), India
Author    Correspondence author
Triticeae Genomics and Genetics, 2018, Vol. 9, No. 1   doi: 10.5376/tgg.2018.09.0001
Received: 14 Jan., 2018    Accepted: 30 Jan., 2018    Published: 24 Feb., 2018
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This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Raikwar R.S., and Saraf R.K., 2018, Identification of superior indigenous barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm for crop improvement, Triticeae Genomics and Genetics, 9(1): 1-4 (doi: 10.5376/tgg.2018.09.0001)


Among 230 barley germplasm, only 24 significantly superior lines as compared to standards were identified for most of the characters studied. Superiority of these lines were based on adjusted mean value of yield and its components. On the basis of yield superiority and phenotypic acceptability only 12 elite lines were identified which may be used as donor for providing their potential value during barley improvement programme. These elite lines were K 273; P 486; P 478; K 501; RD 2496; K 511; P 515; BHS 249; P 485; K 375; P 513 and K 500. Thus presence of high variability in the present material indicates potential for crop improvement.

Hordeum vulgare L.; Germplasm; Evaluation; Barley; Crop improvement


Barley a crop of an ancient origin is grown worldwide for food, feed and forage. Being versatile and hardy in nature it can be cultivated under varying agro-climatic situations. Among the cereal crops in India, barley ranks fourth in acreage after rice, wheat and sorghum and occupied sixth position in production. Superior nutritional quality and multifarious uses, barley promises much in many least favorable and neglected agricultural areas, particularly in problematic soils like rain fed, dry land, saline-alkaline, and flood prone marginal/coastal areas of rivers. In present situation a systematic hybridization programme is in progress to improve malt and feed barley to meet the growing demand of farmers. Climate change increases the negative impact of abiotic and biotic stresses on wheat and barley production. Increasing CO2 concentrations reduce the ability of barley to assimilate nitrates (Bloom et al., 2010), high temperatures increase stress and change the geographic distribution of pathogens, and altered precipitation patterns increase the likelihood of short-term crop failures and long term production declines. These constraints, compounded by increasing demand for food, and increasing costs for fertilizer, water and other inputs, require a national plan for innovative plant breeding and education.


Keeping these views in mind, this study was carried out to improve grain yield and quality through the genetic variability is fundamental to selection and to a great extent to the breeding methodology as such, since germplasm serves as valuable natural reservoir in providing needed attributes, for developing successful varieties (Hawkes, 1981). Thus in view of aforesaid consideration the present investigation was undertaken to sort out targeted elite lines.


1 Results and Discussion

Careful perusal of data in Table 1. Shows that K 396 is superior for 12 traits followed by K 375 showing better performance for 11 characters only. Entry BHS 249, P 516 and K 370 were promising for 10 characters which may donate desirable trait potential during crop improvement. DL 544, DL 468, K 413, K 426, K 478, P 227, DL 448 and RD 2496 exhibited average superiority for 8-9 traits. Germplase bearing name K 273, P 486 and P 516 were higher yielded. Among average yielding genotype P 516, P 227, K 375 and DL 468 were found early maturing accession.



Table 1 Adjusted means for yield contributing characters of 24 best significantly superior for grains yield/plant in 530 germplasm of barley


Considering preferred combination of characters for estimating an integrity of grain yield/plant, it can be suggested that straight selection of whole plant may be based on effective tillers, spike length, number of grains/ear, economic yield and seed density. These may be selection criteria during choice of parent. Thus presence of high variability in material indicates potential for improvement through selection. Similar finding have been reported by Konovalov et al. (1991), Sharma and Maloo (1994) and Russell et al. (2011), Hu¨bner et al. (2012). To continue improvements in breeding new cultivars, the diversity locked away in large germplasm collections must be utilized. The accessibility of genebank information has been greatly improved by the Internet web browsing system, although the exchange of seed has become more strictly regulated. We must solve these political problems and prepare for the further use of current barley diversity. Techniques based on genome sequences and resulting tools will accelerate the precise use of current diversity preserved in genebank collections.


Jilal (2011) indicates that throughout time, landraces recognized as valuable sources of resistance to pest, diseases and abiotic stresses have been increasingly replaced by commercial cultivars. Evaluating genetic diversity in cultivated plants for plant breeding programs and heritable resources protection has a vital usage (Khajavi et al., 2014). Determining the level of variation within and among barley populations is an essential step towards conserving genetic resources and developing future strategies for plant improvement (Backes et al., 2009). Genetic diversity among and within plant species is in danger of being reduced. Some studies on genetic diversity of barley have focused on phenological and quantitative traits Mohtashami (2015). According to Malik et al. (2014), many authors showed that grain yield is an ultimate product of the action and interaction of number of components such as number of tillers, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, plant height, harvest index and etc.


An overall analysis reveals that the germplasm resources will be of little value unless these are properly evaluated, because evaluation provides an estimate of its great value.


2 Materials and Methods

A total of 530 barley germplasm collected from different barley coordinating units of India with two standards (Hulled and hull-less) were planted in single row of 1.5 m length at JNKVV, College of Agriculture Rewa MP during rabi 2016-17. The experiment was organized in Augmented Block Design, with two checks repeated after every 13 lines of test entries. Spacing between rows was 25 cm. distance of plants within rows was maintained at about 10 cm by thinning, fertilizer was applied at the rate of 60:30:20 NPK per hectare as per soil test based. Agronomic practices were adopted for raising good crop. Statistical analysis was carried out on computer PC-XL of JNKVV, Regional Agriculture Station Sagar (MP), India using Augmented Block Design (Federer, 1956).


Authors' contributions

R.S. Raikwar participated in the design of the study, in the experimental conduction of essays, in the statistical analysis and in the manuscript writing. R.K. Saraf participated in the design and supervision of the study and preparation of the final manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.



The authors are grateful to Director, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, Project Coordinator, All India Coordinated Wheat & Barley Improvement Project Karnal Haryana India, for providing valuable germplasm collection and Director Research JNKVV, Jabalpur for research facility to undertake the proposed work.



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Bloom A.J., Burger M., Rubio-Asensio J.S., and Cousins A.B., 2010, Carbon dioxide enrichment inhibits nitrate assimilation in wheat and Arabidopsis, Science, 328: 899-903

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Federer W.L., 1956, Augmented design, Hawain Planters Record, 55: 191-208


Hawkes J.G., 1981, Germplasm collection, evaluation and use, In plant Breeding II (ed KJ. Frey), IOWA State univ. Press IOWA, pp.57-84


Hu¨bner S., Flavell A.J., Fridman E., Graner A., Korol A., and Schmid K.J., 2012, Islands and streams: clusters and gene flow in wild barley populations from the levant, Mol Ecol., 21: 1115-1129
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Russell J., Dawson I.K., Flavell A.J., Steffenson B., Weltzien E., Booth A., Ceccarelli S., Grando S., and Waugh R., 2011, Analysis of more than 1,000 SNPs in geographically-matched samples of landrace and wild barley indicates secondary contact and chromosome-level differences in diversity around domestication genes, New Phytologist, 191: 564-578
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