The impact of synonymous mutations in cancer has been overlooked for a long time. However, recent research shows their significance in various biological processes.
One way in which these mutations have an effect is by altering regulatory proteins to DNA. The amino acid remains unchanged but these mutations can disrupt the specific sequences required for accurate interactions.
Synonymous mutations impact splicing patterns by binding sites for the splicing proteins. This alteration can lead to the omission of critical DNA segments. In a severe form of cancer, a mutation was found to interfere with the splicing.
Furthermore, synonymous mutations affect the structure of the mRNA. For instance, a synonymous mutation was found to cause mRNA to fold into less stable conformation.
Synonymous mutations also impact the speed of translation. Certain mutations were found to change a codon that is rarely into a commonly used codon. Cells that carry these mutations show higher protein levels.
Synonymous mutations can influence transcription, splicing, translation, and protein levels. This shows their relevance in cancer. This underscores the need for systematic studies to comprehend their impact further. Until further research has been done by the scientific community, it is quite hard to tell the full impact that synonymous mutations have on the entire process. Nevertheless, there is hope that a breakthrough is underway as the available tools and techniques in use are promising great results.